Similar to tumorigenesis in other tissues, development of meningiomas is likely to result from complex interactions between genes and environment. The etiological role of environmental factors in meningioma development has been suggested for ionizing radiation, diet, smoking, head trauma, and occupational exposures to carcinogenic substances. Of these factors, the evidence is convincing only for an association between ionizing radiation and meningiomas. Elevated risk of meningioma development was shown in studies involving patients who received a low-dose radiation therapy for childhood tinea capitis. Meningiomas were also found to occur years after any type of therapeutic cranial irradiation. Moreover, an increased incidence of meningiomas has been recently reported in survivors of atomic bomb explosions. Radiation-induced meningiomas are often aggressive or malignant. They are also
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The term vaginitis is one that is applied to any inflammation or infection of the vagina, and there are many different conditions that are categorized together under this ‘broad’ heading, including bacterial vaginosis, trichomoniasis and non-infectious vaginitis.