Key Points

• Tumors of the axial skeleton arise primarily from the bone or spread to the bone via hematogenous routes.

• Primary bone tumors can be benign or malignant; benign lesions are typically found in patients who are younger than 30 years of age and are more commonly found in the posterior elements; malignant lesions are typical in older patients and most commonly found within the vertebral body.

• The most frequent metastatic lesions to the spine arise from malignancy of the breast, prostate and lung.

• Diagnostic studies include physical examination, plain roentgenography, CTscanning and MRI, with the latter being the gold standard in imaging.

• Treatment for metastatic disease is primarily palliative; initial treatment is typically radiation therapy, with surgical treatment reserved for unclear diagnosis, intractable pain, spinal instability or neurological deficit.

Cure Your Yeast Infection For Good

Cure Your Yeast Infection For Good

The term vaginitis is one that is applied to any inflammation or infection of the vagina, and there are many different conditions that are categorized together under this ‘broad’ heading, including bacterial vaginosis, trichomoniasis and non-infectious vaginitis.

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