Key Points

• Image-guided neurosurgery involves the alignment of the patient in the operating space to a set of pre-operatively acquired images. Although accuracy issues need to be considered, it generally provides the ability to localize a target to within 2 mm.

• Image guidance facilitates the accurate localization of the target pathology or structures; the neurosurgeon can plan a smaller and more precise craniotomy and follow the ideal trajectory, minimizing the extent of brain exposure and retraction.

• The technique is particularly useful in the management of intracranial tumors, but is also being applied to vascular disease, particularly arteriovenous malformations and some aneurysms, epilepsy surgery, intracranial endoscopy and craniocervical and spinal surgery.

• Image guidance is very valuable in the insertion of spinal instrumentation, usually for fusion purposes. It facilitates the appreciation of pedicular anatomy and allows the choice of the ideal screw length and diameter prior to insertion.

• Current developments include the fusion of anatomical with functional images using functional MRI technology, and perioperative MRI, which allows the pre-operative images to be updated during surgery.

Cure Your Yeast Infection For Good

Cure Your Yeast Infection For Good

The term vaginitis is one that is applied to any inflammation or infection of the vagina, and there are many different conditions that are categorized together under this ‘broad’ heading, including bacterial vaginosis, trichomoniasis and non-infectious vaginitis.

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