• Advances in optical technology and in neu-roimaging have resulted in the establishment of neuroendoscopy - a minimally invasive technique.
• There is a dearth of Class I evidence of the benefits and risks of this technique.
• Neuroendoscopic third ventriculostomy is currently the primary treatment of choice for selected cases of non-tumorous and tumorous hydrocephalus.
• The only demonstrable benefit on present evidence is freedom of complications from implanted devices.
• There are particular applications in the management of shunt complications, intraventricular and paraventricular tumors, and non-tumorous cysts.
• Proper training is essential and the technique should probably remain within the hands of a restricted number of specialists.
• Unstructured propagation is likely to be associated with avoidable morbidity.
• Regulatory authorities should monitor morbidity until the position is clear.
• Prospective studies are required to evaluate the hazards as well as the benefits in comparison with older approaches.
• The future may bring more sophisticated applications in conjunction with image guidance.
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The term vaginitis is one that is applied to any inflammation or infection of the vagina, and there are many different conditions that are categorized together under this ‘broad’ heading, including bacterial vaginosis, trichomoniasis and non-infectious vaginitis.