Introduction

The term "spinal dysraphism" covers a range of developmental conditions of the spinal cord and its surrounding structures. Often also referred to as either spina bifida or neural tube defects, spinal dysraphism is sufficiently all-encompassing to allow for the scope and complexity of these conditions, which the other two terms fail to convey. Spinal dysraphism includes both conditions obvious at birth or before, such as myelomeningocele (spina bifida aperta), and conditions of the spine which may or may not be apparent on closer inspection. This latter group includes so-called occult dysraphism (spina bifida occulta), when the only hint of an underlying spinal abnormality may be a cutaneous lesion or the development of orthopedic or urological symptoms.

Substantial progress has been made in the understanding and management of these conditions in recent years. Effective treatment of hydrocephalus and the multidisciplinary approach to the needs of children with myelo-meningocele have led to improvement in the outlook for those affected. The realization of the importance of tethering as a mechanism for deterioration in dysraphic states has meant an improvement in the management of these conditions, directed at the underlying neurological problem, rather than the acceptance of inevitable deterioration. A fall in the incidence of dysraphic lesions, improvements in diet and the use of preconception folic acid, as well as a better understanding of the genesis of these conditions, will hopefully mean that fewer children are affected in the future.

Cure Your Yeast Infection For Good

Cure Your Yeast Infection For Good

The term vaginitis is one that is applied to any inflammation or infection of the vagina, and there are many different conditions that are categorized together under this ‘broad’ heading, including bacterial vaginosis, trichomoniasis and non-infectious vaginitis.

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