Intracranial ependymomas represent about 2% of brain tumors in adults, and 5.2-6.9% of all tumors in the pediatric population . Approximately one-third of childhood ependymomas arise from the supratentorial ventricular system, and supratentorial lesions are more common in children over the age of 3 years. Adult patients tend to be relatively young, with most series reporting median ages under 45 years [5-7]. Although controversial, age, tumor location, tumor grade and extent of surgical resection have been suggested to be of prognostic significance. Subependymomas are benign, usually asymptomatic, nodules on the ventricular wall and are most commonly detected as an incidental autopsy finding.
Subependymal giant cell astrocytomas are seen in 6-19% of patients with tuberous sclerosis, and may also occur in the absence of this autosomal dominant phakomatosis [8,9]. Despite the benign nature of these tumors, they mostly arise near the foramen of Monro and may grow large enough to obstruct the foramen and cause obstructive hydrocephalus. Intra-tumoral hemorrhage and malignant differentiation have also been reported.
Choroid plexus tumors are more common in the lateral ventricles when compared with the third ventricle. In contrast to adults, in whom the majority of choroid plexus tumors are located in the fourth ventricle and the cerebel-lopontine angle, approximately 75% of choroid plexus tumors in children are found in the lateral ventricles, mostly located in the atrium. In a recent meta-analysis including 566 well documented choroid plexus tumors, histology was the most important prognostic factor, as 5-and 10-year projected survival rates were 81 and 77% for choroid plexus papillomas (n = 353) compared to 41 and 35% in choroid plexus carcinomas, respectively (P < 0.0005) . Surgery was also a statistically significant prognostic factor for both choroid plexus papillomas and choroid plexus carcinomas.
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The term vaginitis is one that is applied to any inflammation or infection of the vagina, and there are many different conditions that are categorized together under this ‘broad’ heading, including bacterial vaginosis, trichomoniasis and non-infectious vaginitis.