Intraoperative Angiography

Particularly in the surgical treatment of giant or complex intracranial aneurysms, it is important to have the option of performing an intraoperative angiogram as a qualitative assessment of the presence and adequacy of cerebral blood flow as pertaining to the patency of specific cerebral blood vessels following aneurysm repair. Routine use of intraoperative angiogra-phy for aneurysm surgery has been employed more frequently of late. Intraoperative angiog-raphy may lead to clip repositioning in as many as 10% of cases. Accordingly, in all cases in which intraoperative angiography may be required, the head should be fixed with a radi-olucent head-holder. It is important to position the patient high up on the operating room table to the extent that the shoulders are hanging over the edge. This will facilitate adequate positioning of the image intensifier. Furthermore, it is advantageous to limit the use of self-retaining retractors, as the retractor bars will obscure good visualization on the intraoperative angio-gram. If the cervical carotid artery has been exposed, it provides an easy route to perform an intraoperative angiogram through a direct carotid puncture. Alternatively, the femoral artery can be cannulated for vascular access.

Cure Your Yeast Infection For Good

Cure Your Yeast Infection For Good

The term vaginitis is one that is applied to any inflammation or infection of the vagina, and there are many different conditions that are categorized together under this ‘broad’ heading, including bacterial vaginosis, trichomoniasis and non-infectious vaginitis.

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