Info

NS, normal saline

*Lactate in these fluids is converted to bicarbonate.

NS, normal saline

*Lactate in these fluids is converted to bicarbonate.

patient is usually hypovolemic as well as hyponatremic. Release of natriuretic peptides following SAH contributes to the development of CSWS, and the resultant hypovolemia and hyponatremia may exacerbate symptomatic vasospasm. Both atrial natriuretic peptide and B-type natriuretic peptide are acutely elevated after SAH, while the role of C-type natriuretic peptide remains unclear. The appropriate treatment for hyponatremia associated with hypovolemia in patients with SAH is volume replenishment with normal saline and increased salt intake. In symptomatic patients the use of hypertonic saline is warranted, although the rate of correction should not exceed 1-2 mEq/l/h to minimize the risk of development of central pontine myelinolysis. Fludrocortisone is a useful adjunct; it reduces natriuresis and expands intravascular volume.

The use of mannitol can also result in hyponatremia and hypokalemia. In addition, change in serum magnesium and phosphates frequently occur in critically ill patients, necessitating appropriate replacement therapy.

Cure Your Yeast Infection For Good

Cure Your Yeast Infection For Good

The term vaginitis is one that is applied to any inflammation or infection of the vagina, and there are many different conditions that are categorized together under this ‘broad’ heading, including bacterial vaginosis, trichomoniasis and non-infectious vaginitis.

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