Incidence

Spinal cord injury in the pediatric age group is rare. The reported incidence of pediatric spinal cord injury ranges from 0.65-10% of all spinal cord injuries [35]. Two age peaks are commonly seen: those younger than 5 years of age and those older than 10 years. The incidence of osseous injury to the spine is greater between the ages of 6 and 15. Under the age of 12, the incidence of spinal injuries has an equal sex distribution, but a significant and dramatic increase in male incidence occurs after the age of 12.

Most of the pediatric spinal cord injuries occur in the summer months. Children of 0-9 years of age usually incur in vehicular versus pedestrian accidents and falls and these account for the majority of the causes in this age group [36]. In the older age group, motor vehicle accidents, including motorcycle accidents, and sport-related injuries are a more common cause. The younger age group of children is also more likely to present with a neurological injury; in fact, younger children are more likely to sustain complete spinal cord injuries than are older children. In this age group, the craniover-tebral and upper cervical portions of the spine are more likely to be injured due to the hyper-mobility of the joints in this age group, especially until the age of 3.

The cervical region is the site most commonly affected, with a higher incidence of spinal cord injury without radiographic abnormality (SCIWORA) in as many as 76% of patients. Multiple non-contiguous spinal injuries have been found in up to 16% of cases, emphasizing the need for complete radiographic evaluation of the vertebral column [2].

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The term vaginitis is one that is applied to any inflammation or infection of the vagina, and there are many different conditions that are categorized together under this ‘broad’ heading, including bacterial vaginosis, trichomoniasis and non-infectious vaginitis.

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