The pediatric spine exhibits more horizontal displacement than its adult counterpart, with subluxation of up to 4 mm considered normal, whereas, in the adult, the upper limit of normal is 3.5 mm . This is most usually seen at the C2-C3 level and, to a lesser extent, between C3 and C4. This is primarily due to the profound elasticity of the surrounding soft tissue and the horizontal orientation of the facets . It is therefore important to remember than in children older than 8 years of age a horizontal displacement of greater than 3.5 mm is a sign of instability. In children younger than 8 years, 4.5 mm is considered unstable. Children less than 8 years of age who present with pain, muscle spasms or neurological deficits and with 3.5 mm of displacement are also considered to be unstable.
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The term vaginitis is one that is applied to any inflammation or infection of the vagina, and there are many different conditions that are categorized together under this ‘broad’ heading, including bacterial vaginosis, trichomoniasis and non-infectious vaginitis.