Horizontal Translational Displacement

The pediatric spine exhibits more horizontal displacement than its adult counterpart, with subluxation of up to 4 mm considered normal, whereas, in the adult, the upper limit of normal is 3.5 mm [38]. This is most usually seen at the C2-C3 level and, to a lesser extent, between C3 and C4. This is primarily due to the profound elasticity of the surrounding soft tissue and the horizontal orientation of the facets [39]. It is therefore important to remember than in children older than 8 years of age a horizontal displacement of greater than 3.5 mm is a sign of instability. In children younger than 8 years, 4.5 mm is considered unstable. Children less than 8 years of age who present with pain, muscle spasms or neurological deficits and with 3.5 mm of displacement are also considered to be unstable.

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Cure Your Yeast Infection For Good

Cure Your Yeast Infection For Good

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