Hemorrhage Related to Ventricular Catheters

Both at the time of initial insertion and particularly during ventricular catheter removal, hemorrhage may occur. Choroid plexus frequently becomes entwined in the catheter and is easily avulsed, leading to intraventricular hemorrhage. It has been suggested that some degree of intraventricular hemorrhage occurs in almost one-third of ventricular catheter revisions. This complication should always be considered when removing catheters, particularly if they have been in situ for a prolonged period of time. Careful evaluation of the pre-operative CT scan may in fact reveal choroid plexus adjacent to the ventricular catheter, highlighting the possible risk of this complication. When an adherent catheter is encountered, it may be necessary to leave it in situ and pass a new one rather than risk choroid plexus avulsion. Passing a stylet along the lumen of the catheter and cauterizing with diathermy prior to withdrawal may help prevent this complication and aid removal of the catheter. Where bleeding does occur, the catheter should be left to drain until the CSF clears; gentle irrigation to prevent occlusion of the catheter with blood clot can be performed. If the blood fails to clear, an external ventricular drain should be left; the patient needs to be

Cure Your Yeast Infection For Good

Cure Your Yeast Infection For Good

The term vaginitis is one that is applied to any inflammation or infection of the vagina, and there are many different conditions that are categorized together under this ‘broad’ heading, including bacterial vaginosis, trichomoniasis and non-infectious vaginitis.

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