Extracellular Fluid Changes

Changes in extracellular fluid with injury to neural tissue consists of accumulation of toxic neurochemicals that break down the blood-brain barrier and may contribute to cerebral edema, resulting in raised intracranial pressure, poor cerebral perfusion and further damage to neural tissue [4].

Apart from the above mechanisms, recent investigations have uncovered a process called diaschisis, where depression of brain function takes place in an area remote from the site of primary injury [5]. The mechanism of this phenomenon is not understood but changes have been seen with PET scanning, where functional alterations have been noted in the contralateral hemisphere and cerebellum [6]. Such a situation would magnify the functional disability resulting from the initial injury. However, as the changes are mainly functional, the potential for ultimate recovery could be more favorable.

Sometimes, damaged neurons exhibit dener-vation super-sensitivity, with exaggerated response to neurotransmitters resulting in altered function [7]. In the brain, such altered function may manifest as central pain syndromes or spontaneous spasms or dystonia with abnormal posturing and impaired mobility.

Thus, the total damage resulting from an injury could be summarized as:

Initial damage, which may be focal or diffuse axonal injury.

Delayed consequences with free radical formation, receptor-mediated responses, Ca flux and inflammatory response.

Secondary damage from hypoxia, hypotension, ischemia resulting from vessel occlusion either due to brain shift or direct vascular injury, raised intracranial pressure following intracranial haematomas, cerebral edema or hydrocephalus, infection, metabolic disorders, dehydration, electrolyte imbalance, hypoglycaemia and possibly the consequences of uncontrolled seizures.

Diaschisis and denervation super-sensitivity.

Effect on target organs, such as contractures, bedsores and disuse atrophy.

Cure Your Yeast Infection For Good

Cure Your Yeast Infection For Good

The term vaginitis is one that is applied to any inflammation or infection of the vagina, and there are many different conditions that are categorized together under this ‘broad’ heading, including bacterial vaginosis, trichomoniasis and non-infectious vaginitis.

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