The development of small-caliber rigid endoscopes and malleable endoscopes has facilitated the marriage between neuroendoscopy and microneurosurgery. The overriding principles are to use the endoscope to bring light into the operative field, and to enable alternative lines of sight. Simultaneous images through the microscope and through the endoscope can be displayed on a single monitor. Particular applications are: the improved application of aneurysm clips, access to skull base tumors, microvascular decompression of the trigeminal and facial nerves through very minimal access approaches, and transsphenoidal pituitary surgery . For those surgeons able to cope with the simultaneous integration of so much technology, and who can find space in the operating room for the additional equipment, the rewards do seem substantial in terms of enhanced visualization and accuracy.
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The term vaginitis is one that is applied to any inflammation or infection of the vagina, and there are many different conditions that are categorized together under this ‘broad’ heading, including bacterial vaginosis, trichomoniasis and non-infectious vaginitis.