Diagnosis

The diagnosis of craniosynostosis is made clinically, although adjunctive imaging studies may confirm the diagnosis and aid in the planning of further care. Craniosynostosis must be differentiated from deformational molding, as the latter is much more common than true craniosynostosis and often amenable to conservative management [20, 25, 26]. This is particularly true of lambdoid synostosis. Over the last decade, most cases that were thought to be lambdoid synostosis are now recognized as positional molding. Unless severe, this masquerading plagiocephaly may be treated conservatively.

CT scanning, particularly with three-dimensional reconstruction, readily defines the characteristic head shapes and delineates associated cranial base anatomy effectively. It also permits visualization of changes within and around suture(s). We have also found that CT angiog-raphy effectively defines dural sinus anatomy and allows appropriate operative planning and complication avoidance [27]. This is particularly important in the syndromic forms, where jugular foramen atresia and subsequent enlargement of emissary veins may present formidable obstacles. The modified prone position requires significant neck extension, and dynamic cervical spine films are employed to screen for cranio-cervical junction instability. Others have suggested the use of highresolution tomography, TCD ultrasonography and PET as pre-operative studies. Their clinical utility awaits further confirmation.

Molecular genetic testing is becoming increasingly feasible and some have correlated

Cure Your Yeast Infection For Good

Cure Your Yeast Infection For Good

The term vaginitis is one that is applied to any inflammation or infection of the vagina, and there are many different conditions that are categorized together under this ‘broad’ heading, including bacterial vaginosis, trichomoniasis and non-infectious vaginitis.

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