Injuries to the spine have the potential to be neurologically devastating. Immediate recognition in the setting of multiple trauma is essential to prevent neurological worsening. The initial assessment includes airway protection and hemodynamic stabilization, as well as a thorough history and physical examination, including a complete neurological examination. Radiographic identification of life-threatening injuries begins in the emergency department. A high index of suspicion should be maintained at all times to recognize and treat certain injuries, such as atlanto-occipital dislocation.

The cervical spine is the most commonly injured segment of the spinal cord. Recognition and treatment of the injury to this area is imperative, given the high morbidity and mortality associated with injuries to this segment. Closed reduction can be attempted for selected types of injuries which, if successful can be then managed non-operatively.

Other segments of the spine can be injured and can produce a variety of neurological deficits. Injury at one segment should prompt a relentless search for an injury at another segment. Full spine precautions should be maintained during the initial clinical and radiographic evaluation. Pharmacological therapy in the way of steroids is indicated in patients who arrive to the hospital within 8 hours of their injury.

Pediatric patients represent a group at risk for certain types of injuries, which need immediate identification. This is because of the bio-mechanical differences between the adult and pediatric spines. As in the adult patient, prompt attention to correcting hemodynamic instability, as well as taking into account the anatomical differences, allow for a better outcome on this group of patients.

Cure Your Yeast Infection For Good

Cure Your Yeast Infection For Good

The term vaginitis is one that is applied to any inflammation or infection of the vagina, and there are many different conditions that are categorized together under this ‘broad’ heading, including bacterial vaginosis, trichomoniasis and non-infectious vaginitis.

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