Axonal Injury

The degree of axonal damage is classified into the following stages [3].

Stage I - Nodal membrane injury at the node of Ranvier, which is the weakest point in the axon, where stretching causes injury with ionic fluxes, influx of Na, Ca and Cl and efflux of K, resulting in conduction block. This may be restored in minutes, with immediate recovery.

Stage II - Reversible cytoskeletal damage follows a greater magnitude of injury. Fluid fluxes to maintain osmolarity, resulting in swelling of axons and impairment of axo-plasmic transport but, as swelling subsides, axons recover, restoring function.

Stage III - Secondary axotomy occurs, with even greater injury. Ca and other neuro-chemicals accumulate and destroy the axoplasm, so that recovery cannot take place.

Stage IV - Primary axotomy with very severe injuries results in immediate disruption of axons.

The ultimate extent of functional recovery depends on the type of mixture in the area of tissue damage. Where the majority of axons have sustained stage I or II damage, structural, and hence functional, recovery could be expected to be satisfactory, as opposed to a situation where the bulk of the axons have sustained stage III or IV damage, where no functional recovery may be expected.

Cure Your Yeast Infection For Good

Cure Your Yeast Infection For Good

The term vaginitis is one that is applied to any inflammation or infection of the vagina, and there are many different conditions that are categorized together under this ‘broad’ heading, including bacterial vaginosis, trichomoniasis and non-infectious vaginitis.

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