How to Whiten Your Skin Naturally
To evaluate the skin-lightening effect of a product, we perform punch biopsies (2 mm) in the periauricular area of the ear at baseline prior to treatment and following 8 weeks of topical treatment to the contralateral ear region. Following 8 weeks, a second 2 mm punch biopsy sample is obtained from the treated periauricular region of the ear. The skin biopsy specimens are snapped, frozen, and stained with, for example, S-100 monoclonal antibody (which stains specifically for pigment cell and melanin presence when an indirect immunoperoxidase staining procedure is used). Figure 1 shows untreated skin (baseline). One can see dendritic melano-cytes at the basal region of the epidermis (arrows). Figure 2 shows S-100 staining following 8 weeks of topical treatment. Note the subtle yet quantitative reduction in the absolute number of visible pigment-producing melanocytes. Although this difference is not clinically significant to the test subject, t is an objective quantitative observation...
Laugier Hunziker syndrome is an acquired, benign macular hyperpigmentation of the lips and oral mucosa 118 . It typically starts in early to middle adult life and is more common in women than men. The pigmentation consists of brownish, circular or linear macules, that may be sharply circumscribed or more diffuse in nature, and lesions may coalesce. The lesions are seen most commonly on the buccal mucosa, lips and the hard and soft palates. Other less frequent sites include the tongue, gingiva and floor of the mouth. Occasionally, the pharynx and oesophagus are also involved 190 . About half of the cases also have nail involvement in the form of longitudinal pigmented bands in one or more fingers or toes. There are no known systemic associations.
Incontinentia pigmenti is an X-linked domi-nantly inherited disorder usually lethal in males, affecting skin, bones, teeth, the central nervous system and eyes. The characteristic skin lesion begins soon after birth, with a linear eruption of bullae, which resolve to leave a linear pattern of hyperpigmentation. Ocular features are usually apparent within the 1st year of life can occur in up to 77 18 . The main abnormalities are peripheral vascular abnormalities and retinal pigment epithelial defects. Macular vasculopathy with progressive capillary closure has also been described 13 . The affected eye is often microphthalmic and complications can arise from late tractional retinal detachment in up to half of those with eye involvement 18 . Prophylactic cryotherapy or
Structure The uveal tract (also known as the vascular pigmented layer, vascular tunic, and uvea) takes its name from the Latin uva (grape) because the dark pigmentation and shape of the structure are reminiscent of a grape. The uveal tract consists of the following structures Melanosis of the iris This refers to dark pigmentation of one iris.
This is a rare neurocutaneous disease with an autosomal-recessive mode of inheritance. The syndrome is caused by deficient nucleotide excision repair mechanisms 2090 . The skin, including the lips, is affected and shows epithelial atrophy and hyperpigmentation. Patients are extremely sensitive to light and show an increased predisposition to UV-asso-ciated malignancies of the skin. Carcinomas of the tongue have also
Two key micronutrients may have played a critical role in the evolution of skin coloration. Pigmentation with melanin is an adaptive response that is maintained by natural selection. The vitamin D hypothesis states that pale skins were necessary outside tropical latitudes to facilitate vitamin D biosynthesis within the skin from low levels of UV light. Thus, depigmentation evolved as humankind radiated out of the tropics where a dark skin protected against excess, even toxic, synthesis of vitamin D (18). More recently, Jablonski and Chaplin (19) formulated a superbly elegant paradigm to show how degradation of UV labile folic acid (20) might impair reproductive success by destroying a molecule critical to cell division (Figures 2.2 and 2.3), and that arresting vitamin D3 synthesis in the skin at high latitudes could further impair reproductive success by altering calcium homeosta-sis (Figure 2.4). They conclude that natural selection has produced two opposing clines of skin...
The third forensic application of Y-chromosomal DNA polymorphisms is in the identification of the geographical origin or genetic ancestry of an unknown male individual. Since this is the most recent application of Y-chromosomal markers to forensics, it deserves a somewhat more detailed summary. Geographical origin or, in other words, genetic ancestry identification is important in forensic cases with no known suspects. In such cases it would be helpful for the police to be able to concentrate their investigation towards finding suspects from specific groups of individuals, i.e. people of a particular geographical origin (often the terms 'ethnic group' or 'ethnic identification' are used but are unfortunate since ethnicity is determined by more factors than geography). Genetic testing can, to a certain extent, provide such information, at least for some geographical regions of the world. However, in order to trace the suspect(s), the police would usually extrapolate information on...
The onset of clinical manifestation is usually insidious with gradual development of signs and symptoms, each of which is non-specific alone. Increasing weakness, fatigue, lassitude, anorexia, myalgia, and weight loss are the first symptoms in gradually developing primary hypoadrenalism. Weight loss, which is mostly due to anorexia but can also be caused by dehydration, may be substantial. Vomiting and constipation, apathy, depression, and even psychosis may also occur. Vomiting and abdominal pain often herald an adrenal crisis. In some instances a history of craving for salt or salty foods may be present. Blood pressure is usually low and signs of dehydration are common. Hyperpigmentation, particularly of the lips, buccal mucosa, gingiva, palmar and plantar creases, areolas, and previous scars, is characteristic of primary hypoadrenalism but may be absent in hypoadrenalism of recent onset. Hyperpigmentation may be generalized, creating a darkish cast to the skin resembling a sun tan....
Dose-limiting toxicities are related to myelosuppression and mucositis. Variable susceptibility to congestive car-diomyopathy is an associated complication from cumulative dose administration of anthracyclines. Emetogenic potential is considerable. Reversible alopecia is not unusual. They are also among the most potent vesicants available, and thus scrupulous attention should be given during the administration of these agents to prevent tissue extravasation. Photo-sensitivity, hyperpigmentation, and pigmentation of the nails and urine are common. Another interesting toxicity is the radiation recall phenomenon. As the term suggests, pain, erythema, and blistering or ulceration occur on previous radiation sites within 3 to 7 days of administration of the antitumor antibiotic. This phenomenon may be observed on any epithelial surface and may thus manifest as dermatitis, enteritis, pneumonitis, or stomatitis. The drugs most commonly implicated are the anthracyclines doxorubicin and...
Cause radiation recall reactions, with flare-ups of dermatitis, stomatitis, or esophagitis that had been produced previously by radiation therapy. Less severe tox-icities include phlebitis and sclerosis of veins used for injection, hyperpigmentation of nail beds and skin creases, and conjunctivitis. Because of its intense red color, doxorubicin will impart a reddish color to the urine for 1 or 2 days after administration.
An OCT image (B) taken through the scar displayed a complete loss of neurosensory retinal tissue consistent with an old, focal necrotizing retinitis. Increased reflectivity was observed from the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and choroid corresponding to epithelial hyperpigmentation and alteration of the choroidal architecture. The reflection from the choroid was fragmented due to shadowing by the hyperpigmented RPE.
Another interesting multifunctional skin care product includes a three-in-one product containing san protection factor (SPF) a moisturizer, and skin-lightening performance characteristics. Manufacturers of moisturizing products in general tend to focus on consumer use of moisturizers in regions that are cold and low in humidity. Although dry skin in these climatic regions does indeed present with the usual flakiness, itching, and general consumer discomfort, consumers in regions with hot weather and low humidity present with some different cosmetic skin care needs.
The appearance of the skin and mucous membranes may identify anaemia, jaundice, cyanosis, or carbon monoxide poisoning. Bruising over the scalp or mastoids, or the presence of blood in the external auditory meatus or nostrils, raises the possibility of basal skull fracture, and bruising elsewhere in the body raises the question of trauma. An exanthem may indicate the presence of a viral infection causing meningoencephalitis or of meningococcal septicaemia, or raise the question of haemorrhagic disease. Hyperpigmentation raises the possibility of Addison's disease. Bullous skin lesions are frequently seen in barbiturate intoxication. Kaposi's sarcoma, anogenital herpetic lesions, or oral candidiasis would raise the question of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) with a consequent plethora of possible central nervous system disease.
Physical description Covered with reddish-black hair. Dark skin. Thick head-hair that hangs down the back like a mane. Low forehead. Eyes with a reddish tinge. Flat nose. High cheekbones. Enormous teeth. Muscular arms and legs. Females have large breasts and buttocks. Fingers long and thick. Splayed feet.
This can be due to lesions of the adrenal cortex, to extrapituitary, ectopic production of ACTH by neoplasms, to excessive corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) production, and to pituitary-dependent ACTH excess. The latter, termed Cushing's disease , was recognized and described by Harvey Cushing in 1932. The syndrome is characterized by centripetal obesity, plethoric moon-shaped facies, hirsutism, acne, diabetes, hypertension, muscle weakness, bruising, mental disorders, amenorrhea and osteoporosis, all due to gluco-corticoid hypersecretion. Hyperpigmentation is associated with ectopic ACTH production and, in severe cases, with pituitary-dependent ACTH excess. This is because the pro-hormone from which ACTH is eventually cleaved (pro-opiomelanocortin) also contains the amino acid sequences for melanocyte-stimulating hormone. Left untreated, Cushing's disease leads to severe complications.
Long-standing areas of oral hyperpigmentation, but they rarely arise from pre-existing benign melanocytic naevi. The majority of cases are painless in the early stages and form irregular, black or brownish flat, raised or nodular areas that are frequently multicentric. Rarely, they are amelanotic and may be reddish in colour. Nodular areas are usually a feature of more advanced tumours and may be ulcerated and associated with pain and bleeding. Invasion of the underlying bone is common and teeth involved may loosen or exfoliate. In most cases there is involvement of the cervical lymph nodes at presentation and half of patients have distant metastases.
In postmortem examination of tissue, the substantia nigra is readily identifiable because of the dark pigmentation in the neurons that is the result of the accumulation of neuromelanin, a substance whose neurochemical composition is not completely known but is thought to derive from oxidized dopamine. Lewy bodies are composed of many cytoskeleton and other proteins, including a-synuclein, ubiquitin, and synaptophysin. It is not clear whether the formation of these inclusions contributes to neuronal degeneration or they are merely a byproduct of degenerating neurons.
Porphyria cutanea tarda is precipitated by alcohol and sex hormones, particularly oestrogen. Symptoms include skin vesicles and bullae, hyperpigmentation, and skin fragility when exposed to significant light. Prevention of attacks is the focal point of management. Patients should avoid excessive exposure to sunlight, alcohol, and oestrogen. Erythropoietic porphyria also manifests skin-related signs and symptoms, including burning, oedema, itching, and erythema. Limitation of sun exposure is the primary form of prevention.
Covered in thick, gray hair. Dark skin. Receding forehead. Face is hairless. Huge ears like an elephant's. Prominent nose. Small mouth. Big teeth. Long head-hair. individual hairs on upper torso are about 3 feet long. only a thumb and one finger on the hand. Thumb has a claw 2.5 inches long. one prehensile big toe and three small toes.
A mostly naked skin that comes in different colors. Geographers and anthropologists have long recognized that the distribution of skin colors among indigenous populations is not random darker peoples tend to be found nearer the equator, lighter ones closer to the poles. For years, the prevailing theory has been that darker skins evolved to protect against skin cancer. But a series of discoveries has led us to construct a new framework for understanding the evolutionary basis of variations in human skin color. Recent epidemiological and physiological evidence suggests to us that the worldwide pattern of human skin color is the product of natural selection acting to regulate the effects of the sun's ultraviolet (UV) radiation on key nutrients crucial to reproductive success. only as they are exposed to sun with age. The earliest humans almost certainly had a light skin covered with hair. Presumably hair loss occurred first, then skin color changed. But that leads to the question, When...
A potentially fatal lung toxicity occurs in 10 to 20 of patients receiving bleomycin. Patients particularly at risk are those who are over 70 years of age and have had radiation therapy to the chest. Rarely, bleomycin also may cause allergic pneumonitis. Bleomycin skin toxicity is manifested by hyperpigmentation, erythe-matosus rashes, and thickening of the skin over the dorsum of the hands and at dermal pressure points, such as the elbows. Many patients develop a low-grade transient fever within 24 hours of receiving bleomycin. Less common adverse effects include mucositis, alopecia, headache, nausea, and arteritis of the distal extremities.
Primary acquired melanosis (PAM) arises in middle-aged or elderly patients as a stippled, yellow-brown, flat pigmentation of the conjunctiva. Two subgroups of PAM can be recognised PAM without atypia (benign acquired melanosis) and PAM with atypia. In benign acquired melanosis, there is hyperpigmentation of the basal layer, but there is only a mild increase in melanocytes. The melanocytes can be large, but show little or no cytologic atypia. Although the evolution of PAM is unpredictable, lesions without atypia have a good prognosis. PAM with atypia can disappear
Heavy smokers can sometimes develop areas of oral hyperpigmentation. It is more common in women than men. Although any part of the mouth can be affected the anterior gingivae are involved most frequently. The lesions vary in colour from light brown to bluish-black and the lesions may be focal or diffuse. Sometimes the overlying mucosa has a somewhat milky-white appearance, particularly in the buccal mucosa. The condition can slowly resolve if smoking is stopped or reduced 72 . Pigmentation of the soft palate has been reported in a significant number of patients with suppurative lung disease and malignancy 117 . Nearly a quarter of patients with confirmed bronchogenic carcinoma show this feature. Most patients have a long history of cigarette smoking and it is possible that in many cases these lesions were merely smoker's melanosis rather than being related directly to the pulmonary lesions.
Clinical manifestations usually present as an exaggerated sunburn occurring in sun-exposed areas only (Figure 34.3, between pp. 426 and 427). This is followed by hyperpigmentation. Photo-onycholysis and pseudoporphyria (blisters on sun-exposed parts of the limbs) are less common clinical forms.
Variant name Pitt Lake Lizard. Physical description Length, usually 5-10 feet, wit h a maximum of 20 feet. Relat ively smooth, dark skin. Horns or ears are sometimes report ed. Long snout. Jaws 12 inches long. Four legs, 10 inches long.
Physical description Looks like a water buffalo without a hump like a hippopotamus or like a cow, horse, or mule without horns or cloven hooves. Size of a cow. Dark skin. Some accounts give it a horn in the middle of its forehead. Pink areas around the eyes and mouth. Huge, hanging ears.
Such observations led us to hypothesize that dark skin evolved to protect the body's folate stores from destruction. Our idea was supported by a report published in 1996 by Argentine pediatrician Pablo Lapunzina, who found that three young and otherwise healthy women whom he had attended gave birth to infants with neural tube defects after using sun beds to tan themselves in the early weeks of pregnancy. Our evidence about the breakdown of folate by UV radiation thus supplements what is already known about the harmful (skin-cancer-causing) effects of UV radiation on DNA. THE EARLIEST MEMBERS of Homo sapiens, or modern humans, evolved in Africa between 120,000 and 100,000 years ago and had darkly pigmented skin adapted to the conditions of UV radiation and heat that existed near the equator. As modern humans began to venture out of the tropics, however, they encountered environments in which they received significantly less UV radiation during the year. Under these conditions their...
Hydroquinone is applied topically to treat disorders characterized by excessive melanin in the epidermis, such as melasma. In the United States, nonprescription skin-lightening products contain hydroquinone at concentrations of 2 or less higher concentrations are available by prescription.
Azelaic acid (Azelex) is a naturally occurring dicar-boxylic acid produced by the yeast Malassezia furfur. Azelaic acid inhibits tyrosinase, a rate-limiting enzyme in the synthesis of the pigment melanin. This may explain why diminution of melanin pigmentation occurs in the skin of some patients with pityriasis versicolor, a disease caused by M. furfur. Azelaic acid is bacteriostatic against a number of species thought to participate in the pathogenesis of acne, including Propionibacterium acnes. The drug may also reduce microcomedo formation by promoting normalization of epidermal keratino-cytes. Azelaic acid is used for the treatment of mild to moderate acne, particularly in cases characterized by marked inflammation-associated hyperpigmentation.
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