Homemade Skin Care Recipes

Leons Anti-aging Beauty Secrets

Leons Anti-Aging Beauty Secrets provides useful tips for women on anti-aging and skin care. This book reveals interesting ancient beauty secrets, talks about anti-aging diet, and provides easy-to-make natural recipes for home skin care. Learn how to use Essential and Carrier Oils to make your own Anti-aging Serums that rejuvenate, revitalize and brighten your complexion. Make your own Alpha Hydroxy Facial Masks to deal with Dull, Blotchy, Lifeless and Wrinkled Skin. Dont you want to know what women in other countries have been using for generations to keep themselves young and gorgeous? Discover the Anti-aging Secrets of women across the Globe. Learn how these easy Facial Exercises can reduce your Laugh Lines, Puffy Eyes, Wrinkles and improve your overall Skin Tone. Make Your own Eyelash Growth Serum using some Carrier Oils and get Longer, Darker and Thicker Eyelashes in less than a month. Learn Gemstone Therapy For Aging Skin and Make Your Own Gemstone Elixir. More here...

Leons Antiaging Beauty Secrets Overview


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Rejuvenating Skin Care Recipes

The Naturally Skinsational eBook shares the simple secrets that will teach you how to use the potent rejuvenating properties of common all natural ingredients to effectively rejuvenate your skin. Consider all the benefits of making your own skin treatments using all natural recipes: Gives your aging skin effective anti-aging treatments and defense against damage using the science of herbal lore to proactively address the symptoms of aging skin including fine lines, wrinkles, age spots and sagging skin. Provides your skin with all-natural rejuvenating properties of herbs that best combat degeneration by stimulating healing, collagen production, and offer powerful antioxidant protection against further signs of aging, skin damage and deterioration. Nourishes your skin with powerful natural antioxidants and nutrients that stimulate cell regeneration. Saves you ridiculous amounts of money on store bought skin treatments. Uses common ingredients found right in your own kitchen. Quick and easy skin care recipes that use ingredients with proven natural anti-aging attributes. Gives you piece of mind that your skin treatments are made with quality fresh ingredients. Provides a deep sense of satisfaction that your homemade skin care products have maximized the potency of natural ingredients. More here...

Rejuvenating Skin Care Recipes Overview

Contents: Ebook
Author: Sue Dolan
Official Website: www.skincareresourcecenter.com
Price: $9.95

Skin Care

Organ, covering the entire body in a four-layer sheath. Like all organs, skin serves specific purposes that contribute to overall physical well-being. Limited ability, for example, to sense potential dangers to the skin or to turn or position oneself, can result in damage to the skin and cause it to break down. Proper skin care is essential to maintain function and prevent breakdown of this vital organ. An understanding of basic anatomy, skin functions, and proper care will allow you to prevent and manage skin problems.

Additional Vol Umes In Prepara

There is little commonality in the scientific methods, processes, and formulations required for the wide variety of cosmetics and toiletries in the market. Products range from preparations for hair, oral, and skin care to lipsticks, nail polishes and extenders, deodorants, body powders and aerosols, to quasi-pharmaceutical over-the-counter products such as antiperspirants, dandruff shampoos, antimicrobial soaps, and acne and sun screen products.

Multifunctional Cuticle Treatments

The primary function of cuticle treatment products has changed somewhat over the years. Thirty years ago the emphasis was limited to cuticle removers that aided in pushing back or even dissolving the part of the cuticle, which extends over the base of the nail. Ingredients used for this purpose were very harsh and included potassium hydroxide at a high level. While these products still exist, the primary function and emphasis have become broader and more practical. Cuticle products are now positioned to treat most of the skin tissue that immediately comes in contact with the fingernail. Our own line of nail care products includes several cuticle treatments, none of which contain potassium hydroxide. This change of emphasis offers the consumer products that are more helpful in dealing with real conditions, including hangnails, broken irritated skin where hangnails have been removed, and the thick accumulations of dry skin that form around the sides of the nail.

Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

SIADH involves the release of ADH, despite a low serum osmolality. It has an average onset at 8 days and lasts 3-9 days. Patients have a normal skin turgor and blood pressure, a normal or decreased hematocrit, hyponatremia with serum hyposmolality and a urine osmolal-ity greater than serum osmolality. Renal and adrenal functions are normal, as is urinary excretion of sodium. Hyponatremia of SIADH is generally associated with normovolemia from ADH-induced free water retention in the kidney.

Multifunctional Nail Polish Remover

A wide range of moisturizing ingredients that provide conditioning and moisturization of the nail and cuticle can be included. Ingredients used to moisturize and condition the nail and cuticle are chosen based on their solubility in the active solvent. Almost any therapeutic ingredient useful in other skin care products can be used in nail polish remover. While it is customary to use moisturizers and conditioners that are inexpensive because nail polish remover is typically one of the lowest priced items in the beauty department, it is prudent to use one that provides the maximum effectiveness at the lowest concentration. This strategy provides maximum treatment with the least negative impact on product performance. The test method that follows allows one to create a balance between removal efficiency, cost, and treatment of nail and cuticle.

Plateletderived growth factor

Normal skin appears to be devoid of PDGF receptors. Animal studies illustrate that rapid expression of both a and P receptor subunits is induced upon generation of an experimental wound (e.g. a surgical incision). Receptor expression is again switched off following re-epithelialization and complete healing of the wound.

Quantitative Absorption Data

In experiments that measured the reverse of percutaneous absorption, the potassium flux from the inside of normal skin to water on the stratum corneum was 3.5 ( 3.6) X 10 9 mol cm2 sec (Table 2) (18). Removing the stratum cor-neum doubled the potassium flux. The brief duration of these experiments made it impossible to determine a reasonable permeability coefficient.

Sellarsuprasellar tumours pituitary adenoma

'Adult GH deficiency syndrome' -weight gain, loss of libido, fatigue Amenorrhoea, sterility, loss of libido Glucocorticoid and androgen deficiency, muscle weakness and fatigue Secondary hypothyroidism -sensitivity to cold, dry skin, physical and mental sluggishness, coarseness of hair Failure of lactation

Stage 2 preclinical HIV infection

Although viral titres fall in the circulation at this time there is significant and persistent virus replication within lymph nodes and spleen. The clini-414 cally latent period may last 8-10 years and circulating CD4 T-cell count remains normal for most of this period. However, there is a delayed, gradual but progressive fall in CD4 T lymphocytes in most patients, who may remain asymptomatic for a prolonged period despite modest lym-phopenia. A number of minor skin problems such as seborrhoeic dermatitis are characteristic of the end of the latent phase.

Nonmalignant Skin Disease

The most common and debilitating skin problems arise from the long-term use of glucocorticoids. The manifestations include striae, friable skin, ecchymosis, acne-form rash and cushingoid features. In addition, cyclosporine may cause thickening of the skin, hypertrichosis, gingival hyperplasia, epidermal cysts, pilar keratosis, and folliculitis. Treatment includes reducing the dosage of these medications to the lowest level necessary to maintain immunosuppression and topical measures.

Aortic and visceral revascularization

Embolization to distal sites, particularly in aortic surgery, can occur at various stages during the procedure, releasing atherosclerotic and thrombotic debris to the distal circulation. This becomes most evident in the foot, with patchy areas of cyanosis or necrosis. Prevention is of paramount importance, and treatment should be expectant, with foot cradles for protection and skin care for prevention of infection. In cases where viability of the foot is a concern, thromboembolectomy with a Fogarty balloon catheter, followed by infusion of urokinase, may be an alternative.

Sympathomimetic syndrome

May be difficult to distinguish from anticholinergic syndrome. Sweating and normal to hyperactive bowel sounds are associated with sympathomimetic overdose, whereas anticholinergic toxidrome manifests with dry skin and diminished bowel sounds.

Clinical Implications and Perspectives

In conclusion, aging is associated with many skin microvasculature changes, all with a negative influence on tissue nutrition, which can explain the increased fragility and vulnerability of elderly skin to the different noxae and to the environment stress. Thermoregulatory adaptive mechanisms are also affected, resulting in a reduced capability to cope with both heat and cold stress. 9. Smith, L. (1989). Histopathologic characteristics and ultrastructure of aging skin. Cutis 43, 414-424.

Prevalence Of Overweight And Obesity

Obesity is now known to be a major contributor to the global burden of disease.3 Obesity is associated not only with some nonfatal but debilitating health problems, such as respiratory difficulties, chronic musculoskeletal problems, skin problems, infertility, sleep apnea, and poor mental health, but also more life-threatening problems, including hypertension, type 2 diabetes, heart disease, stroke, some types of cancer.315 Obese people have higher mortality from all causes 16-19 more than 280,000 deaths annually have been attributed to obesity among U.S. adults.20 In Europe, this number is at least 279,000 deaths, of which 175,000 are attributable to obesity and 104,000 to overweight.21 Furthermore, a large decrease in life expectancy is observed among obese individuals, especially among younger adults.22,23 Severely obese children and adolescents have lower health-related quality of life24 and early-onset obesity has been suggested as a risk factor for morbidity and mortality later...

Managing Consumers Expectations Can Also Be Challenging

Sometimes promised results are so long in coming, or learning proper use is so time-consuming, that consumers give up. Products that take weeks or months to show their multifunctional benefits often are abandoned before the formulations have had a chance to achieve results. Countless bottles of skin care products rotate through consumers' cabinets as any subtle wrinkle or pore reduction goes unnoticed. People move on to the next possibility, hoping that it can work sooner, or even at all. Patience levels need to be queried in consumer research studies. Super-high-margin Rembrandt toothpaste succeeded in spite of itself because consumers perceived that, over time, it was working to whiten their teeth better than other toothpastes. Dentists, however, agreed that there was actually no superior benefit. Researchers need to determine the specifics about how the consumer thinks the MFP will perform, as well as to assess their levels of expectations.

Key Points Of Inquiry

Sometimes, when marketers get it right, just one added ingredient can start a market boom. For example, there has been significant growth in industries such as skin care products because, for example, interest in anti-aging and sun protection have driven the development of new products that incorporate alphahydroxy acids (AHAs) and sunscreens. In recent years, over a thousand new products are launched annually, more than twice as many as a decade ago. AHAs have been responsible for much of this impressive growth. Marketers need to learn more and manage data better to get to these sweet spots.

Clinical Radiological And Pathologic Characteristics

Venous malformations (VMs ) are the most common intramuscular vascular anomalies the patient is usually a child or an adolescent, sometimes a young adult, brought to consultation for localized pain, soft-tissue swelling, and intermittent functional impairment. Pain develops during physical activities (6) but also in the morning on waking up and during cold rainy weather. Physical signs include a tender mass under a normal skin the situation is distinct clinically from an intramuscular VM of the extremities trunk with blue skin involvement (20) , no local inflammation, no pulsation, no bruit, and no general symptoms. If lower limb pain was present for several years, atrophy of the limb may develop as a consequence of the limitation of physical activities. Limitation of joint motion may also occur.

The Multidisciplinary Team

The nurse's main responsibilities are to work with client and family to increase independence in personal care with a 24-h approach advice regarding skin care, diabetes, continence and general health promotion liaising with district nurses and general practitioners, teaching self-help strategies dietary advice understanding medication methods of lifting and handling.

Xavier Intes PhDa Britton Chance PhD ScDb

Light absorption in tissue originates from many different analytes. The main relevant chromophores are oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin, melanin, water, lipids, porphyrins, NADH, flavins, and other structural components. In the NIR spectral range, however, the chromophores exhibiting significant extinction coefficients can be limited to four as shown in Fig. 1 (melanin is overlooked because of its confinement to the normal skin) (1) oxyhemoglobin, (2) deoxyhemoglobin, (3) water, and (4) lipids. NIR interrogation of tissue at multiple wavelengths correlated with appropriate photon propagation models provides the average or local quantitative concentrations of these compounds. Consequently, NIR optical techniques allow noninvasive monitoring of the metabolic activity of deep tissue through the hemoglobin concentration and oxygen saturation. This monitoring, combined with the inexpensive cost of instrumentation, opens many potential medical applications to NIR techniques.

Normal Flora of the Skin

Microscopic Arachnid Skin Causes Acne

The skin represents a distinct ecological habitat, analogous to a cool desert, compared to the warm, moist tropical conditions that exist in other body systems. Large numbers of microorganisms live on and in the various components of the normal skin. For example, depending on the body location and amount of skin moisture, the number of bacteria on the skin surface may range from only about 1,000 organisms per square centimeter on the back to more than 10 million in the groin and armpit, where moisture is more plentiful. The numbers actually increase after a hot shower because of increased flow from the skin glands where many reside. Most of the microbial skin inhabitants can be categorized in three groups diphtheroids, staphylococci, and yeasts (table 22.1, and see figure 22.1). Although generally harmless, skin organisms are opportunistic pathogens, meaning that they can only cause disease in people with impaired body defenses. Table 22.1 Principal Members of the Normal Skin Flora...

Reservoirs of Infectious Agents in Hospitals

Many hospital-acquired infections originate from the patient's own flora. Nearly any invasive procedure can transmit microorganisms that are part of the normal flora to otherwise sterile body sites. When intravenous fluids are administered, for example, Staphylococcus epidermidis, a common member of the normal skin flora, can potentially gain access to the bloodstream. While the immune system can usually readily eliminate these normally benign organisms, the underlying illness of many hospitalized patients compromises their immunity and they can develop a bloodstream infection. Patients who undergo intestinal surgery are prone to surgical site infection by their normal bowel flora. Similarly, patients who are on cer- Just as urinary catheters can introduce bacteria into the bladder, intravenous (IV) catheters can introduce micro organisms into the bloodstream. This can happen when normal skin flora colonize the tip of an indwelling catheter or when environmental organisms contaminate...

Essential Fatty Acid Requirements

Columbinic acid (C18 3n-6, 9, 13 cis, cis, trans), found in the seed oil of the columbine, Aquilegia vulgaris, and dihomocolumbinic acid (C20 3n-6, 9, 13 cis, cis, trans) have been used to differentiate the roles of EFA as structural components in biomembranes versus their roles as eicosanoid precursors ( 115). Neither columbinic acid nor dihomocolumbinic acid can be converted to PG however, columbinic acid can be incorporated into membrane PL in contrast to dihomocolumbinic acid. As EFAD results in decreased tissue concentrations of C20 4n-6, EFAD symptoms are worsened further by dietary addition of dihomocolumbinic acid. Columbinic acid given to EFA-deficient rats, either orally or by topical skin application, efficiently restores their growth rate and normal skin function ( 114). When EFA-deficient rats treated with columbinic acid became pregnant, however, they died of inadequate labor during parturition, since uterine labor depends on normal PG biosynthesis ( 116).

Skin Microcirculation in the Elderly

Age-related structural alterations in the skin have been well documented by histologic and ultrastructural examination of skin biopsy specimens from younger compared to older people 9 . The fine, regular epidermal surface pattern changes to coarser and less regular ridges with aging. Epidermal projections into the dermis are retracted and the dermal-epidermal junction is flattened. The dermis becomes thinner, and there are fewer fibrillar collagen and elastic fibers in older skin. A progressive reduction with age in the dermis hyaluronic acid content has been also demonstrated, which could account for some of the most striking alterations of the aged skin, including decreased turgidity, altered elasticity, and less support for microvessels. Basic mechanisms underlying skin aging can be represented by a reduced cellular turnover and a prolonged time to recover after an injury 10 . According to the majority of the experts in this field, the morphofunctional state of skin, to a large...

Kaposis Sarcoma Associated Herpesvirus KSHV or HHV8

In 1994, Chang et al used representational difference analysis (RDA) to search for DNA sequences present in AIDS-associated KS but not in adjacent normal skin. Using this approach, they were able to identify a then unknown human g-herpesvirus in KS tissue, which they called the Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) or human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) 5 . KSHV belongs to the genus Rhadinovirus, and its genomic structure is most similar to the closely related lymphotropic g-herpesviruses Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), the only other known human her-pesvirus associated with human cancers. Compelling evidence points to KSHV as the infectious etiologic agent for KS (i) Epidemiological studies have established a pattern of KSHV infection that precedes KS development and overlaps with KS risks. (ii) Examination of KS biopsies revealed that KSHV DNA is present in KS tumor (spindle) cells and in endothelial cells lining vascular spaces of KS lesion. (iii) In vitro studies have demonstrated that...

Molecular Control of Skin Angiogenesis

Whereas angiogenesis is a common feature in developing skin during embryogenesis, blood vessels in healthy adult skin are quiescent with the exception of the cyclic expansion of perifollicular vessels during the hair cycle. In normal skin, vascular quiescence is maintained by the dominant TSP-2 expression during embryonic development and in adult tissues is spatially and temporally different from TSP-1. The expression of TSP-2 is downregulated in epithelial squamous cell carcinoma cells, whereas a strong upregula-tion of TSP-2 is found in the mesenchymal stroma during skin carcinogenesis, representing a natural tumor defense mechanism 6 . Mice that are deficient in TSP-2 show increased skin vascularization, enhanced and prolonged inflammatory reactions, and enhanced skin carcinogenesis, confirming the important role of endogenous TSP-2 in the control of skin angiogenesis. Accordingly, genetic overexpression of TSP-2 protects from skin cancer development and inhibits the growth of...

Monocyte Migration To Sites Of Inflammation

CXCL14 BRAK, which selectively recruits circulating monocytes in homeostasis, as well as monocytes activated by prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). CXCL14 breast and kidney-expressed chem-okine (BRAK), which is thought to be made constitutively by normal skin keratinocytes, dermal fibroblasts, as well as lamina propria cells 60 , Monocytes cultured with PGE2 have been shown to gain chemotactic responsiveness to CXCL14 BRAK, while losing responsiveness to CCL2 MCP-1, CCL5 regulated upon activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES), and CXCL12 stromal cell-derived factor (SDF) -1 60 , The receptor for CXCL14 BRAK is yet unknown. The authors propose that once monocytes enter sites of inflammation, local secretion of PGE, polarizes monocytes to be responsive to high levels of CXCL14 BRAK.

Can Starving Yourself Affect Rate Of Healing Of Surgery Wounds

Two principal forms exist cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) and ergocalciferol (vitamin D2). Vitamin D2 is obtained from the diet (Table 9.1), in which case it is absorbed, with the help of bile salts, in the small intestine. Vitamin D3 is produced endogenously by keratinocytes in the skin via biosynthesis from 7-dehydrocholesterol upon exposure to ultraviolet light. The epidermis is where the greatest amount of vitamin D production occurs (49). It is conceivable that large cutaneous wounds and scarring impair the process of epidermal vitamin D synthesis (50,51). Burn scar and normal skin adjacent to the wound show a fivefold decrease in the ability to transform 7-dehydrocholesterol to vitamin D3 (51). 5. Shapiro, S.S. and Saliou, C., Role of vitamins in skin care, Nutrition, 2001 17 839-844.

Clinical Manifestations of Hypothyroidism

Succeeding months, especially in severe cases, protuberance of the abdomen, dry skin, poor growth of hair and nails, delayed eruption of the deciduous teeth, and delay in reaching the normal milestones of development (e.g., holding up the head, sitting, walking, and talking) become evident.

Views Regarding the Term Cosmeceutical

An aspect of the cosmeceutical revolution to consider is its reason for being in the first place. Historically, consumer needs and demands have driven the cosmetic market to evolve to this point. Many years ago, a cosmetic or toiletry product was expected to have one simple function. For example, a lotion helped to moisturize dry skin, and a deodorant was used to mask body odors. As consumers increasingly demanded substantially more benefits from cosmetics and toiletries, multifunctional products were born 1,2 . For example, now a moisturizing lotion also may have antiitch benefits, promote skin exfoliation to reduce flakiness, and promote the healing of dry skin by supplying substances essential to maintain the barrier layer function. Most deodorants now are also OTC drugs because they contain antiperspirants to keep underarms dry in addition to masking body odors.

Wound Reepithelialization

Surgeons have long known that a key factor in wound healing is excellent tissue perfusion. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), fibroblast growth factor (FGF), and TGF-b are the critical factors involved in wound angiogen-esis. VEGF is expressed at low levels in normal skin but highly upregulated in keratinocytes during wound healing. Angiogenesis appears to be tied to matrix deposition and granulation tissue formation. Application of a neutralizing anti-VEGF antibody to a wound is associated with decreased wound angiogenesis. Conversely, application of topical VEGF increases wound angiogenesis, granulation tissue formation, and wound closure rates 6 . Diabetic wounds are found to have decreased levels of VEGF expression, but demonstrate very high levels of angiopoetin-2, an antiangiogenic protein. Although angiopoetin-2 production in wounds is not unusual during specific phases of wound healing when vessel growth requires destabilizing preexisting vessels, such high levels are...

S Evidence statements

The last review assessed the effects of different types of absorbent product for the containment of urinary and or faecal incontinence. The results indicated favourable outcomes in terms of skin problems, the number of changes, ease of disposal and cost for disposable vs non-disposable body worns.290

An Example of Combination Claims

Another interesting multifunctional skin care product includes a three-in-one product containing san protection factor (SPF) a moisturizer, and skin-lightening performance characteristics. Manufacturers of moisturizing products in general tend to focus on consumer use of moisturizers in regions that are cold and low in humidity. Although dry skin in these climatic regions does indeed present with the usual flakiness, itching, and general consumer discomfort, consumers in regions with hot weather and low humidity present with some different cosmetic skin care needs.

Cornelia de Lange syndrome

Many children are diagnosed at birth or within a few days of birth. They show characteristic features of hypertricosis (hirsutism, synophrys, long eyelashes), facial abnormalities including depressed nasal bridge, ocular anomalies, prominent philtrum, thin lips, anteverted nostrils, a down-turned angle of mouth, bluish tinge around eyes, nose and or mouth, widely spaced teeth, high arched palate, low set ears, micrognathia, and short neck. Limb deformities include grossly malformed upper limbs, small hands and feet with short digits, limitation of extension of elbows, proximally placed thumbs, clinodactyly of fifth finger, a single transverse palmar crease (in about 51 per cent of cases), and webbing of second and third toes. Other anomalies include cryptorchidism and hypoplastic genitalia in males (57 per cent of cases), a small umbilicus (53 per cent of cases), a low-pitched cry, and small nipples (55 per cent of cases). (33) Systemic abnormalities include severe gastrointestinal...


In the opinion of the author, the most exciting achievements in this arena are those in which the cosmetic scientist has been able to elevate the performance of a subfunctionality to a level of such magnitude that it is perceived as creating a new product category. A prominent example, cited many times throughout this chapter, is the two-in-one shampoo. While the likelihood of attaining comparable achievements in the future may be diminished by consideration of the numbers of scientists presumed to have unsuccessfully explored these areas in the past, it is also increased by the significant strides being made on a regular basis in true cosmetic science. Prominent among these are the achievements contributing to truly efficacious skin care.

Benzoyl peroxide

Benzoyl peroxide is first-line therapy for mild acne. It is available over-the-counter. The liquids and creams (Benoxyl) are less irritating and are useful for dry skin. The gel (Benzagel, Persa-Gel) is more irritating but more effective for oily skin. Mild redness and scaling occurs during the first week. It may irritate the skin, bleach the clothes, and inactivate simultaneously applied tretinoin and other anti-acne products.

Microcheck 222

The normal skin flora are important because they help protect against colonization by pathogens. Occasionally, they cause disease when body defenses are impaired. They are responsible for body odor, and probably contribute to acne. Name and describe the three groups of organisms generally present on normal skin.

Skin Lightening

To evaluate the skin-lightening effect of a product, we perform punch biopsies (2 mm) in the periauricular area of the ear at baseline prior to treatment and following 8 weeks of topical treatment to the contralateral ear region. Following 8 weeks, a second 2 mm punch biopsy sample is obtained from the treated periauricular region of the ear. The skin biopsy specimens are snapped, frozen, and stained with, for example, S-100 monoclonal antibody (which stains specifically for pigment cell and melanin presence when an indirect immunoperoxidase staining procedure is used). Figure 1 shows untreated skin (baseline). One can see dendritic melano-cytes at the basal region of the epidermis (arrows). Figure 2 shows S-100 staining following 8 weeks of topical treatment. Note the subtle yet quantitative reduction in the absolute number of visible pigment-producing melanocytes. Although this difference is not clinically significant to the test subject, t is an objective quantitative observation...

Fact and Fantasy

We reported two decades ago that biomolecules and molecular assemblages such as membranes and proteins can be stabilized in the dry state in the presence of a sugar found at high concentrations in many anhydrobiotic organisms, trehalose.1 We also showed that trehalose was clearly superior to other sugars in this regard.2 This effect seemed so clear it quickly led to wide-spread, and often uncritical, use of the sugar for preservation and other purposes. In fact, an array of applications for trehalose have been reported, ranging from stabilization of vaccines and liposomes to hypothermic storage of human organs.3 Other workers showed that it might even be efficacious in treatment of dry eye syndrome or dry skin in humans.4'5 Trehalose is prominendy listed as an ingredient in cosmetics, apparendy because it is reputed to inhibit oxidation of certain fatty acids in vitro that might be related to body odor.6 Trehalose has been shown by several groups to suppress free radical damage,...

Donna A Chow

NF-kB , an important transcription factor for inflammatory and innate immune responses, is thought to promote keratinocyte viability during their upward migration and differentiation, contributing to spacial control and maintenance of tissue architecture. Kerat-inocytes except those in the granular layer express Fas constitutively, and all appear relatively resistant to the Fas pathway which is dominant in lymphocytes reviewed in 1 , The regulation of keratinocyte survival and death is considered a complex, redundant and highly coordinated process, with stem cell proliferation in the basal layer and terminal differentiation and apoptosis limited to the upper layers of the epidermis reviewed in 1,2 , Apoptotic keratinocytes shrink and are phagocytosed by nearby keratinocytes acting as non-professional phagocytes, while terminally differentiated keratinocytes flatten, form the stratum corneum and eventually are sloughed off reviewed in 1 ,

Book Layout

Chapters 5 and 6 discuss the formulation of multifunctional products for skin care. Chapter 5 provides a detailed look at the development of ingredient mixtures for multifunctionality in skin care products. Methods for choosing appropriate materials and evaluating their effectiveness for various functionalities are given. Similarly, Chapter 6 discusses formulation of multifunctional nail care products and methods for their evaluation. The final three chapters are related to areas that affect the development of multifunctional products but do not specifically deal with formulating. Chapter 11 reviews the techniques involved in developing claims support for multifunctional products. Numerous methods are proposed for both skin care and hair care products. Additionally, an overall strategic approach is proposed for specifically dealing with products of these types. Chapter 12 examines the role of packaging in the development of multifunctional products. Numerous aspects of the package are...

Table 1424

Phillips, T., Demircay, Z., and Sahu, M., Hormonal effects on skin aging, Clin. Geriatr. Med., 17, 661-672, 2001. 96. Phillips, T., Demircay, Z., and Sahu, M., Hormonal effects on skin aging, Clin. Geriatr. Med., 17, 6610-6672, 2001. Thomas, P., Age related changes in wound healing, Drugs Aging, 18, 607-620, 2001. Bolognia, J., Aging skin, Am. J. Med., 98, 99-102, 1995.

Tretinoin Retin A

Fair-skinned patients may begin by applying the 0.025 cream shortly after washing nightly. The quantity of tretinoin applied may be gradually increased as tolerated, and twice-daily applications may be appropriate. The cream is best for dry skin the gel is best for oily skin.

Dapsone and Sulfones

Sulfones, such as dapsone and sulfoxone (Diasone), are well absorbed orally and are widely distributed throughout body fluids and tissues. Peak concentrations of dapsone are reached within 1 to 3 hours of oral administration and have a half-life of 21 to 44 hours about 50 of administered dapsone is bound to serum proteins. The sulfones tend to remain in the skin, muscle, kidney, and liver up to 3 weeks after therapy is stopped. The concentration in inflamed skin is 10 to 15 times higher than that found in normal skin. The sulfones are retained in the circulation for a long time (12-35 days) because of hepatobiliary drug recirculation. The sul-fones are acetylated in the liver, and 70 to 80 of drug is excreted in the urine as metabolites.


The normal skin is generally resistant to invasion by dermatophytes. Some species, however are relatively virulent and can even cause epidemic disease, especially in children. In conditions of excessive moisture, dermatophytes can invade keratinized structures, including the epidermis down to the level of the keratin-producing cells. A keratinase enables them to dissolve keratin and use it as a nutrient. Hair is invaded at the level of the hair follicle because the follicle is relatively moist. Fungal products diffuse into the dermis and provoke an immune reaction, which probably explains why adults tend to be more resistant to infection than children. It also explains why some people develop the allergic id reactions.

Lupus Erythematosus

Discoid Lupus Erythematosus Dle

This feature is sometimes so florid that it produces a pseudoepitheliomatous appearance. The slender downgrowths can also show a tendency to fuse with each other producing an appearance simulating an embedding artefact. Dyskeratotic cells are an occasional feature. There is apoptosis and liquefaction degeneration of the basal cells, sometimes with Civatte body formation. The BMZ may become hyalin-ised and thickened and this is sometimes a notable feature. There is a band-like infiltrate of lymphohistiocyt-ic cells in the superficial corium similar to that seen in lichen planus, but the lower border tends to be less well defined and the infiltrate often extends into the deeper tissues in a perivascular distribution. Reactive follicles may form in the lymphoid infiltrate. In cases of SLE there may be evidence of fibrinoid necrosis in vessels. Direct immunofluorescence of lesional tissue for IgG, IgM or IgA shows a granular deposit in the BMZ of about 75 of cases of...

Multiple Sclerosis

Patients with MS can be studied effectively in the sleep laboratory setting. Similar to other individuals with motor and sensory challenges, these patients may need handicap access and aid in transfer. Technologists should inquire if the patient needs assistance in turning during the night or has other special needs such as requirements for urinary catheterization or skin care needs. Since this disorder can result in hypoventilation and more subtle airway disturbance, these patients should be monitored for end tidal CO2 and nasal pressure.

Daily Life

Plain soap itself generally does not destroy many organisms it simply aids in the mechanical removal of transient microbes, including most pathogens, as well as dirt, organic material, and cells of the outermost layer of skin. Regular handwashing and bathing does not adversely impact the beneficial normal skin flora, which reside more deeply on underlying layers of skin cells and in hair follicles. pathogen, p. 465 normal flora of the skin, p. 535

Think Clean and Green to Flawless Skin

Think Clean and Green to Flawless Skin

Lets accept the fact: many of us are skin conscious. As much as possible, we wanted to have a fresh, good looking skin. However, many of us failed to recognize that simple steps are the best ways to attain it.

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