Effects Produced By The Parasympathetic Nervous System

The parasympathetic physiological activity on the organs is generally the opposite of the sympathetic with a few exceptions. The effect of the parasympathetic nervous system effects on some areas of the body are listed below:

a. Eye (Pupil). Contraction of the pupil (miosis) is produced by parasympathetic stimulation.

b. Heart. The parasympathetic nervous system produces a decrease in heart rate and a slight decrease in the contraction strength of the heart.

c. Bronchi. The bronchi are contracted by parasympathetic stimulation.

Parasympathetic Nervous System
Figure 6-5. The parasympathetic nervous system.

d. Salivary Glands. Parasympathetic nervous system stimulation of the salivary glands leads to profuse, watery secretions.

e. Stomach. Parasympathetic stimulation of the stomach leads to increased motility and tone and relaxed (usually) sphincters.

f. Intestines. Increased intestinal motility and tone and stimulated secretion of intestinal fluids are products of parasympathetic stimulation.

g. Urinary Bladder. Parasympathetic stimulation causes contraction of the bladder wall and relaxation of the sphincter.

Continue with Exercises

INSTRUCTIONS: Answer the following exercises by marking the lettered response that best answers the question.

After you have completed all the exercises, turn to "Solutions to Exercises" at the end of the lesson and check your answers. For each exercise answered incorrectly, reread the material referenced with the solution.

1. Select the names of the two major divisions of the human nervous system.

a. The central nervous system and the somatic nervous system.

b. The central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system.

c. The central nervous system and the autonomic nervous system.

d. The central nervous system and the parasympathetic nervous system.

2. Select the names of the two divisions of the peripheral nervous system.

a. The central nervous system and the somatic nervous system.

b. The autonomic nervous system and the parasympathetic nervous system.

c. The somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system.

3. The autonomic nervous system is best described as:

a. The part of the peripheral nervous system that is under voluntary control.

b. The part of the peripheral nervous system that innervates skeletal muscle and which has acetylcholine as the chemical transmitter.

c. The part of the peripheral nervous system that is involuntary and innervates smooth muscles, cardiac muscles, and gland cells.

d. The part of the peripheral nervous system that is involuntary and is frequently referred to as the adrenergic nervous system.

4. Which statement best describes the sympathetic nervous system?

a. The component of the autonomic nervous system that has acetylcholine as its primary transmitter.

b. The component of the autonomic nervous system that has epinephrine as its chemical transmitter.

c. The component of the autonomic nervous system which is responsible for bringing the body back to normal after the fight or flight response.

d. The component of the autonomic nervous system which is not crucial for a person to have if they live in a controlled environment (no stress).

5. The parasympathetic nervous system is best described as the component of the autonomic nervous system which:

a. Has acetylcholinesterase as its chemical transmitter.

b. Has epinephrine as its chemical transmitter.

c. Is not crucial for a person to have if he/she lives in a controlled environment (no stress).

d. Is responsible for bringing the body back to normal after the fight or flight response.

6. The neurotransmitter of the sympathetic nervous system at the preganglionic synapse is_while the neurotransmitters at the effector organ are_and_.

a. Epinephrine, norepinephrine, and acetylcholine.

b. Acetylcholine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine.

c. Epinephrine, acetylcholine, and acetylcholinesterase.

d. Acetylcholine,Catechol-o-methyltransferase, and monoamine oxidase.

a. Vasodilation and relaxation of nonintestinal smooth muscle and cardiac stimulation.

b. Increased contractility of vascular smooth muscle and intestinal relaxation.

c. Contraction of smooth muscle.

d. Vasocontraction of vascular smooth muscle.

8. Select the effect produced on the eye by the sympathetic nervous system.

a. Mydriasis (dilation) of the pupil.

b. Miosis (contraction) of the pupil.

9. Select the effect produced on the eye by parasympathetic stimulation.

a. Mydriasis (dilation) of the pupil.

b. Miosis (contraction) of the pupil.

10. Parasympathetic stimulation of the salivary glands leads to:

a. Profuse, watery secretions.

b. Thick and viscous secretions.

c. None of the above.

11. Sympathetic stimulation of the intestines results in:

a. Decreased motility and tone of the muscles.

b. Increased motility and tone of the muscles.

c. None of the above.

12. The chemical transmitter of the parasympathetic nervous system is:

a. Epinephrine.

b. Norepinephrine.

c. Acetylcholinesterase.

d. Acetylcholine.

13. Parasympathetic stimulation of the heart results in: (more than one response can be correct)

a. Increased heart rate.

b. Decreased heart rate.

c. Increased contraction strength.

d. Decreased contraction strength.

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Responses

  • bowman
    Does weak parasympathetic nerves increase sebum production?
    1 year ago
  • Sheshy Selassie
    What is the impact of parasympathetic activity?
    10 months ago
  • FRANK
    What is the response to parasympathetic stimulation of the bladder wall muscles?
    7 months ago
  • maryam
    Does the parasympathetic nervous system contract smooth muscle in voluntary muscle tissue?
    5 months ago
  • elsa
    What are the effects of the overreactioning of the parasympathetic nervous system?
    4 months ago
  • Bilbo Roper
    Is skeletel muscle part of autonomic nervous system?
    4 months ago
  • pirkka
    Does sympathetic effect muscles in intestinal walls?
    3 months ago
  • Alicia
    Is contraction of the urinary bladder an example of a parasympathetic response?
    3 months ago
  • HELEN
    Does the parasympathetic nervous system make skeletal muscle constrict or relax?
    2 months ago
  • Tomba
    Which system directly innervates skeletal muscles?
    15 days ago

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