A large number of other preparations have been used to study induction and neural development, including classical Organizer grafts, pioneered by Mangold and Spemann in urodeles (13,30), and used more recently in studies of Xenopus neural development (14), and placing the Organizer into the blasto-coel (the "Einsteck") (90). The general rules that can be taken from the above discussion for any embryological manipulation of these types are:
Know the fates and locations of the tissues being used. Understand the intrinsic morphogenetic movements of the tissues involved. Mark the tissues involved and follow their movements, instead of assuming what they will do.
Do the operations quickly so that healing is rapid.
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