1. Tungsten needles: These can be made by mounting 2- to 3-cm pieces of 100-^m pure tungsten wire (Goodfellow) on needle holders made of aluminum or wood of diameter 30-40 mm. Pieces of wire can be mounted using either sealing wax or adhesive (e.g., Araldite). The end of the needle should be sharpened to a taper ing point in the hottest part of the Bunsen flame either before or after mounting. The end of the needle can then be bent over to an angle of 90-135° using forceps. Needles will tend to get bent, and should be kept straight and sharpened in the flame throughout the operation to remove attached tissues and to prevent snagging of the tissues being dissected.
2. Spring scissors and fine scissors for dissection of donor embryos.
3. Small spatula for removal of embryos from donor eggs.
4. Curved scissors or scapel for opening host eggs.
5. Fine forceps (Dumont 5) for dissection of donor embryos.
6. Coarse- and fine-gage needles for withdrawing albumen from eggs and injecting ink.
7. Sellotape and opaque egg tape (Beiersdorf).
8. Carmine dye particles (Sigma) for labeling transplanted tissue fragments.
9. Sterile plastic pipets or fire-polished Pasteur pipets for transferring tissue pieces.
N.B. Sterilize all tools that are to contact the embryos by spraying with 70% ethanol and then allowing them to air-dry. Do not flame fine dissection tools.
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