Genes are Expressed by Making RNA
Short Segments of the Chromosome Are Turned into Messages
Terminology: Cistrons, Coding Sequences and Open Reading Frames
How Is the Beginning of a Gene Recognized?
Manufacturing the Message
RNA Polymerase Knows Where to Stop
How Does the Cell Know Which Genes to Turn On?
What Activates the Activator?
Negative Regulation Results from the Action of Repressors
Many Regulator Proteins Bind Small Molecules and Change Shape
Transcription in Eukaryotes Is More Complex
Transcription of rRNA and tRNA in Eukaryotes
Transcription of Protein-Encoding Genes in Eukaryotes
Upstream Elements Increase the Efficiency of RNA Polymerase II Binding
Enhancers Control Transcription at a Distance
Genes are Expressed by Making RNA 133
ds DNA Gene of interest
Strands are locally pulled apart
^ Template strand
^ Coding strand
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