Transcription of Genes

Genes are Expressed by Making RNA

Short Segments of the Chromosome Are Turned into Messages

Terminology: Cistrons, Coding Sequences and Open Reading Frames

How Is the Beginning of a Gene Recognized?

Manufacturing the Message

RNA Polymerase Knows Where to Stop

How Does the Cell Know Which Genes to Turn On?

What Activates the Activator?

Negative Regulation Results from the Action of Repressors

Many Regulator Proteins Bind Small Molecules and Change Shape

Transcription in Eukaryotes Is More Complex

Transcription of rRNA and tRNA in Eukaryotes

Transcription of Protein-Encoding Genes in Eukaryotes

Upstream Elements Increase the Efficiency of RNA Polymerase II Binding

Enhancers Control Transcription at a Distance

Genes are Expressed by Making RNA 133

ds DNA Gene of interest

Strands are locally pulled apart

^ Template strand

^ Coding strand

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