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' /Puget sound Gray whale* *3 ,'/ dogfish ^^u^lfrog g Carp

'/ moth Fruit fly 1< Pacific

Screwworm fly f Tuna fish ¡ _ Bonito

Baker's yeast

' /Puget sound Gray whale* *3 ,'/ dogfish ^^u^lfrog g Carp

'/ moth Fruit fly 1< Pacific

Screwworm fly f Tuna fish ¡ _ Bonito lamprey' J^i v

Mung bean \

FIGURE 20.10 Evolutionary Tree based on Cytochrome c lamprey' J^i v

Mung bean \

Sunflower

FIGURE 20.10 Evolutionary Tree based on Cytochrome c

All three kingdoms, fungi, animals, and plants, have the gene for cytochrome c, which is involved in production of energy. This phylogenetic tree was constructed by comparing the amino acid sequence of cytochrome c from each of these organisms. The closer the branches are together, the more similar the sequences. The numbers along the branches represent the number of amino acid differences.

Creating New Genes by Duplication 547

Ancestral globin gene

FIGURE 20.11 Duplication Creates New Genes

During evolution, the entire ancestral globin gene was duplicated. The two copies were then able to diverge independently of each other. The first gene developed into hemoglobin, which is only found in red blood cells. The second copy developed into myoglobin, which is found in muscle tissue. Both proteins still carry oxygen, but they have tissue specificity.

Duplication

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