Unique to LDL receptor correct ancestry is known. In particular, we need to know whether or not an organism contains multiple sequences derived from the same ancestor. Suppose that, due to partial information, we only knew of a-globin from pigs and b-globin from dogs. If we were unaware of the presence of other members of the globin family in these organisms we might compare these two sequences as if they were orthologous. This would lead to an incorrect relationship.

New genes may be made by shuffling of modular segments of DNA.

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