Ureters

The ureters are retroperitoneal structures, which enter the pelvis passing over the pelvic brim close to the bifurcation of the common iliac artery. They pass postero-inferiorly onto the lateral pelvic walls, anterior to the internal iliac arteries. Subsequently, they curve anteromedially superior to the levator ani to enter the bladder where they describe an oblique course through the bladder wall. In the male, the ureter lies postero-lateral to the ductus deferens and enters the bladder just superior to the seminal vesicles. In the female.the ureter passes medial to the origin of the uterine artery from the anterior division of the internal iliac artery to the level of the ischial spine. It runs in the broad ligament of the uterus and parametrium lateral to the cervix and just above the lateral fornices of the vagina and is crossed superiorly by the uterine artery.

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