The bladder is a muscular organ, which lies below the peritoneal reflection and rests on the pelvic floor. It is separated from the pubic bones anteriorly by the retropubic space. The vagina in the female and the seminal vesicles and vasa deferentia in the male lie posteriorly. The bladder has an apex, body, base (fundus) and neck. The apex lies anteriorly and points to the symphysis pubis. The base forms the posterior wall. The body lies between the apex and base and is formed from the inferolateral surfaces. These converge with the base at the bladder neck. The trigone is a smooth triangular area of internal mucous membrane lying between the ureteric and internal urethral orifices. When fully distended the bladder wall thickness should not exceed 5.0mm.
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