Further Reading

1. Elster AD and Burdette JH. (2001) Questions and Answers in Magnetic Resonance Imaging, 2nd Edn. Mosby, St Louis, Missouri. Thorough but easy to read physics text providing practical answers of benefit to all involved in MRI.

2. Husband JES, Johnson RJ and Reznek RH. (1999) A Guide to the Practical Use of MRI in Oncology. The Royal College of Radiologists, London, UK. General guidelines for oncological MRI examinations.

3. Lomas DJ. (1997) Review: Optimization of sequences for MRI of the abdomen and pelvis. Clin. Radiol. 52(6): 412-428. Physics based review ofMR sequences and artifacts encountered in abdomen and pelvic MR imaging.

4. Loncaster JA, Carrington BM, Sykes JR etal. (2002) Prediction of radiotherapy outcome using dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI of carcinoma of the cervix. Int. J.Radiat. Oncol. Biol. and Phys. 54(3): 759-767. Paper describing method and correlation between clinical outcome and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI.

5. Padhani AR and Husband JES. (2001) Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI studies in oncology with an emphasis on quantification, validation and human studies. Clin. Radiol. 56(8): 607-620. Reviews quantification analysis of oncological studies using dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI.

Pelvic Phased Array Coil
Figure 2.1.

(a) Anterior aspect of a flexible phased array body coil positioned over the lower abdomen and pelvic region. The patient is lying over posterior phased array coil elements. The maximum FOV using this coil arrangement is 35 cm. (b) Flexible phased array body coil with additional elements positioned over the abdomen. The maximum FOV using all the elements is now 50 cm.

Figure 2.2.

Coronal T1W1 of the abdomen and pelvis demonstrating lymph node metastases (arrows).

Figure 2.3.

Transaxial T1W1 of the pelvis showing the intermediate signal intensity corpus uteri (straight arrow) and low signal intensity adnexal cysts (curved arrows).

Figure 2.4.

(a) Transaxial T2W1 with phase encoding direction anterior to posterior with ghosting artifact (arrows). (b)

Transaxial T2W1 with phase encoding direction left to right showing greatly reduced ghosting artifact.

Deep Throat Rays

Figure 2.5.

Sagittal T2W1 of the female pelvis showing the position of presaturation band (cross-hatched area).

Figure 2.6.

(a) Sagittal T2W1 of the female pelvis showing image degradation as a result of peristalsis (arrows). (b) Sagittal T2W1 of the female pelvis post administration of anti-spasmodic agent. The cervical tumour and its relationship with the bladder wall (straight arrow) and rectum (curved arrow) are more clearly visualised.

Figure 2.7.

(a) Sagittal T2W1 of the female pelvis showing plane of transaxial oblique slices perpendicular to the endocervical canal (white line). (b) Transaxial oblique T2W1 of the female pelvis from plane illustrated in (a). The intact fat plane between the cervix uteri and the bladder is clearly visualised (arrows).

Figure 2.8.

Figure 2.8.

(a) Sagittal T2W1 showing plane of transaxial oblique slices parallel to the endocervical canal (white line). (b) Transaxial oblique T2W1 of the female pelvis from plane illustrated in (a), showing infiltration of cervical tumour into the rectal wall (arrows).

Figure 2.9.

(a) Sagittal T2W1 showing plane of coronal oblique slices through the prostate (white line). Note the reduced signal from fat in the abdominopelvic wall due to positioning of presaturation band (arrows). (b) Coronal oblique T2W1 of the male pelvis from plane illustrated in (a), showing disease extending into the bladder from the base of the prostate (arrows), and the lateral extent of the lesion.

Figure 2.10.

Example of a small field of view transaxial T2W1 of the male pelvis with fat saturation. Note the loss of signal from fat (arrows) which allows clear visualisation of the prostate (curved arrow) and abnormal low signal in the peripheral zone posteriorly (arrowheads) consistent with prostatic cancer.

Figure 2.11.

Illustration of the use of a navigator echo for monitoring respiratory motion and triggering data acquisition. A column of data is collected for each TR of the sequence over the boundary of the liver and lung as shown on the left. The right image demonstrates a real-time display of the signal from this column, the narrow dashed box indicating acceptable positions of the diaphragm and the large dashed box extreme positions of the diaphragm. The acquisition can be triggered or retrospectively corrected by setting allowed limits on the position of the diaphragm.

Figure 2.12.

Example images of the application of True FISP in the pelvis. Despite the low spatial resolution of these images there is excellent tissue contrast within the prostate such that the urethra (arrows) can be clearly visualised.

Figure 2.13.

1H spectroscopic chemical shift imaging of the prostate. The position of the voxels is shown in the left image and the measured spectra for each voxel is demonstrated on the right. Citrate occurs only within normal healthy tissue. Areas of malignant tissue are characterised by a decrease in citrate signal and an increase in the choline (cho) signal. (Cr—Creatine.)

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