Vaginal carcinoma is a rare tumour, accounting for 2-3% of gynaecological malignancies. The incidence in the USA is around 0.6 per 100000. It is predominantly a disease of the elderly, with 70-80% of cases occurring in women over the age of 60.
In common with cervical carcinoma, invasive vaginal carcinoma is associated with vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia (VAIN), often induced by exposure to human papilloma virus. The rare clear cell carcinoma, which affects young women, is associated with maternal exposure to diethylstilboestrol.
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