Lymph Node Metastases

Since lymphatic tumour spread is common in pelvic malignancy, it is important to identify the anatomical location of all the pelvic nodal groups and to be aware of the usual pathway of lymphatic drainage for each organ involved. There are perivisceral nodes in the meso-rectal fat, parametrium, and paravesical fat. While meso-rectal lymph node metastases are often identified in rectal cancer, the other perivisceral nodes are only rarely seen. Nodal metastases are most frequently identified in...

Pelvic Clearance Exenteration

Pelvic clearance is the removal of most or all of the pelvic viscera when pelvic tumours are large and locally extensive. It is divided into three types. Anterior pelvic clearance is the removal of the bladder, urethra and male or female sex organs with the formation of a urinary diversion via an ileal conduit. Posterior pelvic clearance involves resection of the rectum and the male or female pelvic sex organs with a bowel anastomosis or formation of an end colostomy. In male patients the...