Shiitake Ebook

Mushroom Growing 4 You

This ebook from Jake White, Certified Mushroom Grower, teaches you how to grow your own mushrooms in your backyard! Since you were a kid, you have probably been told to never eat wild mushrooms But what if you had a way to grow your own wonderful-tasting mushrooms? Wouldn't that taste so much better than bland, grocery store mushrooms? Food that you grow in your own backyard tastes so much better than food from the store. Mushrooms from the store can actually be very dangerous They are as absorbent as sponges. When farmers spray pesticides all over them, they absorb every little drop. Eating store-bought mushrooms is like buying a box full of poison. Jake White can teach you how to easily grow all of the mushrooms that you want, of any kind! Learn how to grow amazing tasting mushrooms that do not have any of the bad drugs on them that store bought ones will! More here...

Mushroom Growing 4 You Summary


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Author: Jake White
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My Mushroom Growing 4 You Review

Highly Recommended

It is pricier than all the other books out there, but it is produced by a true expert and includes a bundle of useful tools.

Overall my first impression of this book is good. I think it was sincerely written and looks to be very helpful.

Living Breathing Mushrooms

The researchers began by analyzing button mushrooms kept at room temperature and were able to confirm that cold temperatures reduce microbial and physiological degradation. The usual form of commercial display calls for mushrooms to be stored for a day or two at 2 c (36 f) and then put out for sale at room temperature for a day. This means they will be fresh for only a brief period after purchase At ii c (52 f), in 90 relative humidity, mushrooms remain presentable for three to five days, but at i3 c (55 f) this period is reduced to three days. The development of a system of refrigerated storage and transportation links ( cold chains ) for delivering fresh prewashed salad greens to the consumer has made it possible to offer button mushrooms in plastic wrapping that significantly extends their sell-by date. But in order to know what kind of atmosphere is optimal for such packaging, it is necessary to understand how mushrooms change under different conditions. In the complete absence of...

Odor Representations In The Antennal Lobes And Mushroom Bodies

Neural activity was recorded from neurons in the antennal lobes and mushroom bodies of locusts, honeybees, and fruitflies, using patch-clamp, intracellular, and extracellular electrodes. The antennal lobe is a glomerular structure, analogous to the vertebrate olfactory bulb. The mushroom body is a structure involved in the formation of odor memories (Menzel 1987). Its functional analog in vertebrates might be the piriform cortex, although the structural similarities between mushroom bodies and piriform cortex are much less obvious than those between antennal lobes and olfactory bulbs. The responses of the principal neurons of the antennal lobe (projection neurons, direct targets of the olfactory receptor neurons) and of the mushroom body (Kenyon cells, direct targets of the projection neurons) are compared here (Figure 10.1). Odor representations are distributed and dynamic (on several timescales) in the antennal lobes but are sparse, brief, and synthetic in the mushroom bodies. Later...

Spoilage Of Fresh Mushrooms

Quality is the single most important factor affecting retail mushroom sales 21 . Whiteness, cleanliness, and brown blotches on fresh mushrooms are the principal factors determining mushroom quality. Consumers prefer to purchase mushrooms that are bright white, free of casing material or other unwanted particulate contaminants clinging to the mushroom surface, and free of brown blotches. The brown blotch discoloration of mushrooms is perceived as a symptom of decreased freshness or microbiological deterioration (spoilage). Enzymatic browning catalyzed by the enzyme tyrosinase (polyphenol oxidase) 22 is the most important factor involved in quality deterioration of fresh mushrooms. The browning reactions are initiated by tissue breakdown due to either mechanical damage or bacterial activity 23 . It has been suggested that the role of tyrosinase in mushrooms is to function as a stress metabolite 24 . Tyrosinase naturally occurs at high levels in the mushroom surface tissue, and is...

Alpf Medical Research - Mushroom

Mau, J.-L., Miklus, M.B., and Beelman, R.B., The shelf life of Agaricus mushrooms, in Shelf Life Studies of Foods and Beverages Chemical, Biological, Physical and Nutritional Aspects, Charalambous, G., Ed., Elsevier Science, 1993, pp. 255-288. 3. Chang, S.T., World production of edible and medicinal mushrooms in 1997 with emphasis on Lentinus edodes (Berk.) Sing. in China., Int. J. Medicinal Mushrooms, 1, 291-301, 1999. 4. Van Griensven, L.J.L.D., The edible and medicinal button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus (J. Lge) Imbach) and its relatives present status, use, and future in commerce and research, Int. J. Medicinal Mushrooms, 3, 311-331, 2001. 6. Schisler, L.C., Biochemical and mycological aspects of mushroom composting, in Penn State Mushroom Shortcourse Manual, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, 1982, pp. 3-10. 7. Beyer, D.M., Basic Procedures for Agaricus Mushroom Growing, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, 2003. Weil, J., The Effect of Phase II...

Microbiology Of Fresh Mushrooms

Doores et al 19 demonstrated that normal healthy mushrooms have high bacterial populations. Total bacterial numbers ranged from 6.3 to 7.2 log CFU g of fresh mushroom tissue. The majority (54.0 ) of bacteria isolated from the mushrooms were identified as fluorescent pseudomonads with flavobacteria comprising the second largest group (10.0 ). Recent experiments in our laboratory have confirmed this pattern, but we have also been able to isolate the chryseobacterium genus (5.5 log CFU g) and the coryneform bacterial genus (5.6 log CFU g) from freshly harvested mushrooms. Halami et al. 20 isolated lactic acid bacteria belonging to the Lactobacillus sp. and Pediococcus sp. from fresh mushrooms by incubating agaricus mushrooms in deMan Rogosa and Sharpe (MRS) broth for enrichment of resident lactic acid bacteria. However, the bacterial counts were not enumerated in their study. Mushrooms also contain significant levels of yeasts and molds. Studies in our laboratory have shown that freshly...

Preserving Mushrooms

Modifying the atmospheric pressure under which button mushrooms are packaged helps retain their freshness for a long time. mushrooms are fragile and hard to keep. Consumers will put up with wild mushrooms that are a bit bruised, but they want ordinary button mushrooms to be nice and white, with a short stem, small cap, and gills that are covered by a continuous veil, for they know that mushrooms can rapidly change character. A few days is all it takes for mushrooms to darken, for their stems to lengthen, for their ink-black gills to be exposed, and, worse still, for their taste and texture to be denatured. How can mushroom producers keep their products fresh for longer periods of time The success of various kinds of ready-to-eat salad greens, washed and packaged under controlled atmospheric pressure, has encouraged food processing firms to take an interest in the problems associated with bringing mushrooms to market. Having shown that the shelf life of baskets of mushrooms could be...

How to prevent discoloration in fruits and vegetables

The vibrant colors of fruits and vegetables are a sign of their freshness. Alas, no sooner have avocados, salsifies, apples, pears, and mushrooms been sliced or chopped than they turn brown. Can this degradation be avoided Can fresh-squeezed apple juice make it from the kitchen to the table without turning dark Cooks have long recommended using lemon, whose juice they believe prevents the appearance of colors associated with overripe, damaged, or rotten organic matter. Is this recommendation sound The darkening of vegetables is caused by enzymes called polyphenol oxidases, which alter the structure of the polyphenol molecules of fruits and vegetables. These molecules have a benzene center surrounded by six carbon atoms at the apices of a hexagon, with either a hydrogen atom or a hydroxyl (-oh) group associated with each carbon atom. In the presence of oxygen the polyphenol oxidase enzymes replace the hydroxyl groups with oxygen atoms, producing quinones whose reaction generates brown...

Green Sulfur Bacteria

Stratified lakes or in benthic forms as microbial mats in sulfide-rich springs. Recently characterized unusual habitats include the anoxic zone 100 m below the surface of the Black Sea (Overmann et al. 1992 Manske et al. 2005), deep-sea hydrothermal vents in the Pacific Ocean (Beatty et al. 2005), and the microbial mats of Octopus and Mushroom Springs in Yellowstone National Park (Ward et al. 1998). GSB are obligately anaerobic and obligately photoautotrophic (Overmann 2000 Garrity and Holt 2001). All characterized GSB strains use the reductive (also called reverse) tricarboxylic acid cycle for CO2 fixation. In addition, most GSB can assimilate a small number of simple, organic compounds such as acetate, but only in the presence of CO2 and a photosynthetic electron donor. Most strains use electrons derived from oxidation of sulfide, but some strains can also oxidize elemental sulfur, thiosulfate, H2, and Fe2+ (Sect. 6.2). All GSB characterized to date have unique light-harvesting...

Mussel Adhesive Proteins

Protein-1 (Dpfp-1), a close homolog of Mefp-1, showed unexpected tissue distribution of Mefp-1. The antibody specifically bound to nascent threads, but not to adhesive plaques (Figure 3.7), suggesting that the role of Mefp-1 might be the waterproof, hydrophobic outer coating of byssal thread 95 . This conclusion was further supported by the poor solubility that resulted after an oxidative cross-linking reaction between decapeptides. The catechol moiety of DOPA has a redox potential that causes it to undergo spontaneous oxidative cross-linking at ambient conditions. Two major cross-linking pathways have been suggested (1) amine addition to the aryl ring of DOPA (Michael addition) and (2) aryl-aryl coupling between DOPA residues. In vitro cross-linking experiments clearly showed aryl coupling reactions (diDOPA) detected in both solid-state 13C NMR and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry 96,97 . Additionally, mass spectrometry data suggested intermolecular Michael-addition reactions between Lys2...

Who uses drugs and why

Polydrug use is the norm on the club scene. Among a sample of Scottish clubbers,(6) individuals had consumed a lifetime average of 11 different drugs. Drug use within the past year included alcohol (96 per cent), cannabis (96 per cent), ecstasy (87 per cent), tobacco (86 per cent), LSD (79 per cent), amphetamine (77 per cent), cocaine (59 per cent), 'poppers' (51 per cent), psylocybin mushrooms (47 per cent), temazepam (39 per cent), diazepam (26 per cent), codeine (19 per cent), heroin (11 per cent), ketamine (7 per cent), solvents (6 per cent), and buprenorphine (6 per cent). Other studies confirm that use of LSD, amphetamine, ecstasy, magic mushrooms, and poppers cluster together among young people. A quarter of all 18-year-olds have tried two or more illegal drugs. In a consecutive sample of 100 patients attending an Oxford drug dependency unit, 22 per cent were regularly using three or more street drugs apart from heroin at presentation (unpublished data).

Spatial control of gene expression

A powerful tool of spatial control of gene expression is the GAL4 UAS enhancer-trap technique (Bellen et al. 1989 Wilson et al. 1989 Brand and Perrimon 1993 Fig. 2), which enables a selective activation of any cloned gene in a wide variety of tissues and cells (Fig. 2). An enhancer-trap element is a transposon containing an exogenous gene, such as the yeast transcriptional activator GAL4. Insertions that occur in close proximity to a transcriptional enhancer cause the GAL4 gene to be expressed in a pattern reflecting the enhancer's spatio-temporal regulatory properties. Thousands of lines carrying an insertion of the P GAL4 element are available. With a single cross, flies are created that carry a second P-element with a reporter gene inserted downstream of GAL4 binding sites the upstream activating sequences (UAS). The reporter gene is expressed in the same cells as GAL4. This flexible system allows for, for example, the labeling of a particular group of cells if the reporter gene...

Tryptamine derivatives

Tryptamine (1H-indole-3-ethanamine) is a naturally occurring metabolite of tryptophan. It forms the parent nucleus of a wide range of hallucinogenic drugs, some entirely synthetic (LSD, N.N-dimethyltryptamine) but many naturally occurring in plants, fungi (psilocybin the psychoactive component of 'magic mushrooms'), and occasionally animals. It seems unlikely that many tryptamines other than LSD and psilocybin will be used unduly in dance clubs because they possess few stimulant properties, and need to be smoked or injected because most are inactive by mouth unless taken with a monoamine oxidase inhibitor. An example of the latter is the combination of N.N-dimethyltryptamine (the hallucinogen) and harmine (the activator) in the hallucinogenic drink ayahuasca or caapi used in rituals by South American Indians. Drugs such a N.N-dimethyltryptamine may have adverse effects upon both the cardiovascular system and on temperature regulation. They may induce unpleasant hallucinogenic...

Which Compartments of Neurons and Nervous Tissues Release Neuromodulators

As stated above, neuromodulator release within the CNS is not well understood. Evidence from immunocytochemistry suggests that neuromodulators, such as octopamine, dopamine, 5-HT, histamine, and numerous peptides, are present in all major neuropils of the brain (Homberg 1994). Some neuropilar regions (e.g., those of the optical ganglia, the antennal lobes, or the central complex of the insect brain) are often densely stained by the respective antibodies, whereas others (e.g., mushroom bodies) exhibit sparse but topographically distinct staining (Sinakevitch et al. 2001). This suggests that only a subpopulation of synapses of central neurons that are part of these neuropils may be exposed to the neuromodulator, and thus may undergo modulation, whereas synapses at other locations on the same neuron may not be affected at all. Caution, however, must be applied when evidence from anatomical data is interpreted functionally. Nevertheless, there maybe functional compartments for...

Packaging and Aromatization

Commercial brands of sausage therefore may be expected in the future to reproduce the flavor of artisanal products. Better still, recent research suggests that synthetic aromas can be created that will improve the quality of unsatisfactory bacterial strains. A compound such as 1-octene-3-ol, introduced in the initial stage of fabrication by Didier Roux, a research scientist working with Capsulis S.A., has produced sausages having a delicate aroma of sous-bois (wild mushroom with hints of decomposing mossy undergrowth).

The Antennal Lobe Spreads Activity Across The Projection Neuron Population

Olfactory sensory neurons at the base of sensilla converge on glomeruli where they contact projection neurons (uniglomerular in Drosophila, multiglomerular in locusts). Projection neurons then send an axon to protocerebral structures (mushroom bodies and or lateral horn).

Synergism and Vitamin C

High-molecular-weight substances such as the mushroom extract PSK and lignans from pine cones increase vitamin C oxidation and synergistically enhance the cy-totoxicity of vitamin C against human leukemia and brain cancer cells in vitro.119,120,121 Again, a prooxidant mechanism is at work. Optimal results in vitro are obtained when a sodium solution is used to dissolve vitamin C, the mixture is freshly made before testing, the vitamin C concentration is 300 pM or greater, and the lignin to vitamin C ratio is roughly 20 to 1 (weight to weight).

Bioaerosols and Disease Donald E Gardner PhD

Fungi are a diverse group of saprophytes that occur in many forms, inhabit air, soil, water, and vegetation, and also live on the bodies of humans and animals. It has been estimated that there are more than 50,000 species of fungi, but fortunately only about 50 are associated with human disease. Fungi are considered one of the most common forms of life on earth. They vary in shape and size from a single-celled microbe to giant multicellular mushrooms. Fungi reproduce by a variety of methods, including budding, fission, and spore formation. Pathogenic fungi generally produce no toxins. All fungi are heterotropic, requiring organic nutrients for existence, and most are obligate aerobes. Within the protoplasm of fungi are enzymes which, when diffused into the surrounding environment, change complex substances into simpler substances useful as nutrients for the cell. Human disease caused by fungi can vary from superficial infections of the skin to severe diseases that involve the...

Summary of Research and Conclusions

The immunostimulating and antitumor properties of Ganoderma and shiitake mushrooms have been dis mals. - A large number of additional animal and human cancer studies have been published on the purified polysaccharide lentinan, isolated from shiitake. Based on the extensive anticancer data of lentinan, it would seem reasonable that crude shiitake extracts could also produce an immunostimulating effect and be useful in cancer treatment. The few studies on crude shiitake and Ganoderma extracts suggest both may indeed be helpful.

General Information

Ganoderma lucidum, also called reishi mushroom, is a common Chinese fungus mentioned in the Shen Nong Ben Cao Jing. Like a variety of other mushrooms, including the edible shiitake mushroom (Lentinus edodes), Ganoderma acts as an immunostimulant in both animals and humans. In addition to its potential to inhibit cancer through immune stimulation, Ganoderma may impede metastasis by inhibiting platelet aggregation (see Table 10.1). The antitumor effects of the purified polysaccharide lentinan, which is obtained from Lentinus edodes (the shiitake mushroom), have been extensively studied in mice. The results have been very encouraging an antitumor effect has been reported against many types of cancers.11 Lentinan has also been studied in humans with promising results. Human clinical trials have reported increased survival when used in combination with chemotherapy.12,75 In rodent studies, the dose generally given (1 mg kg intraperitoneal) is low relative to doses of other polysaccharides...

Background Information

Odors are recognized by primary olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs), which are located on the insect antenna and express odorant receptor genes that encode the odorant receptors (ORs). These are seven transmembrane domain receptor proteins that interact with odor molecules and transduce odorant binding to cellular excitation. The organization of the insect olfactory system is shown in Figure 13.1, using the honeybee as an example. The OSNs send their axons to the olfactory neuropil, the insect antennal lobe (Figure 13.1a, b), which consists of discrete neuropil structures called olfactory glomeruli. Each OSN expresses a single OR gene, and all OSNs expressing the same OR converge onto a common glomerulus. A glomerulus collects OSNs of only one type. Thus, the glomerulus acts as a collecting basket of OSNs with similar odor response profiles. This correspondence has been shown for Drosophila melanogaster (Vosshall 2001) and is also assumed for other insect species, but has not yet been...

Spatial Organization Of Odorevoked Activity

Since the integration of synaptic inputs in neurons can be exquisitely sensitive to temporal proximity, synchronized spiking may transiently establish neuronal ensembles that carry particular information accessible by coincidence detection-based readout mechanisms. Indeed, Kenyon cells in the mushroom body receiving input from projection neurons in insects are efficient coincidence detectors (Laurent andNaraghi 1994 Perez-Orive et al. 2002). The short temporal integration window is established by two mechanisms. First, intrinsic mechanisms, probably involving voltage-gated Ca2+ and possibly Na+ channels, boost synaptic transients. Second, projection neurons also target a small pool of GABAergic neurons elsewhere in the brain, which in turn provides strong and nonspecific feedforward inhibition onto Kenyon cells. This inhibition arrives at the Kenyon cell dendrite with a delay relative to the excitatory projection neuron input during the same cycle, thereby defining a sharp integration...

Oregano Has Effective Antioxidative Properties

Already in the 1950s Chipault et al. (1952) measured antioxidative activities of different spices and found that oregano was among those spices, which have an ability to retard oxidation of lard. Later on Chipault et al. (1955) found that oregano was effective also in oil-in-water emulsion and when it was added as ground into different types of foods, its antioxidant capacity was best in mayonnaise and in french dressing (Chipault et al., 1956). Nakatani and Kikuzaki (1987) and Kikuzaki and Nakatani (1989) reported that antioxidative activity of water soluble fraction of methanol extraction of oregano leaves was due to two new compounds and it was comparable to BHA (butylated hydroxy anisol). Tsimidou and Boskou (1994) have written a whole chapter by name Antioxidant Activity of Essential Oils from the Plants of the Lamiaceae Family in the book Spices, Herbs and Edible Fungi edited by Charalambous (1994). Carvacrol is one of the compounds responsible for antioxidant capacity of...

Carbohydrate Intolerance

There is a range of clinical disorders in which sugar digestion or absorption is disturbed and gives rise to sugar intolerance, creating symptoms by the undigested or unabsorbed sugar and causing water to enter the intestine, which activates peristalsis and induces passage of frequent fluid stools. The undigested carbohydrate can also enter the colon and become fermented into diarrheic agents. The disorders are usually classified as (a) congenital or (b) secondary to some other disease, to impaired digestion of disaccharides, or to impaired absorption of the monosaccharides. The congenital deficiencies, although relatively rare, are life threatening examples are sucrase-maltase deficiency (watery diarrhea after ingesting sucrose-containing foods), alactasia (absence of lactase, diarrhea from ingestion of milk), glucose-galactose malabsorption (diarrhea from ingestion of glucose, galactose, or lactose), and the very rare trehalase deficiency (intolerance to trehalose in mushrooms)....

Conclusion And Future Directions

The aim of this chapter was to provide a synopsis of the present knowledge and concepts of synapse-to-nucleus-and-back signaling mechanisms. Despite the progress in recent years a consistent theoretical framework for the role of activity-driven gene expression in the induction and maintenance of synaptic plasticity is still lacking. A unifying hypothesis of synapto-nuclear signaling will have to solve many problems that are currently not convincingly addressed. The view that molecules are transported from single synapses to the nucleus in response to synaptic activity is largely based on evidence observed in Aplysia motor neurons but has not been convincingly shown in vertebrate neurons like the pyramidal cells of the cortex and hippocampus. Moreover, it needs to be addressed whether dendritic transport of signaling molecules is fast enough to account for the rapid induction of plasticity-related gene expression. An integrated view of synapse-to-nucleus communication will also have to...

Two ways of imparting flavor to food

Must we therefore dismiss such aromatic engineering altogether This would mean foregoing the opportunity to enlarge the palette of flavors. Why not reinforce the green note of olive oil with hexanal, or add 1-octen-3-ol to a meat dish in order to give it an aroma of mushroom or mossy undergrowth (although here one needs to be careful about proportions because in excessive concentrations the same molecule smells a bit moldy) Why not use beta-ion-one to give desserts the surprising violet aroma that flowers have such a hard time releasing

Oregano and marjoram are popular herbs among vegetarian dishes

Oregano goes well with cabbage, kale, chard, tomatoes, mushrooms, zucchini (courgettes), broccoli, beans, tomato, pepper, onions, aubergine, and also with potatoes. squash and stews made from mixed vegetables, mushrooms and asparagus. Oregano is a good substitute for table salt, and those who want to decrease their intake of salt, are advised to season their food with oregano.

Fish and shellfish dishes

Parsley, garlic, thyme, black pepper, basil, pepper flakes, capers, coriander, ginger root and cayenne pepper are the other spices used in these recipes for pasta and macaroni dishes along with oregano. The main foodstuff in these pasta and macaroni dishes seasoned with oregano can be cheese, tomatoes, clams, broccoli, pork, chicken, mushrooms, beef and fish like sole. Oregano is put in pasta dishes as such or is used to season the dressing. There are actually not any foodstuff one could not season with oregano. In Time-Life Books Healthy Home Cooking there is a special cooking book for Fresh Ways with Terrines and P t s (1991). Such dishes like Herbed Pork and Veal Terrine, Tomato Sirloin Loaf, Salmon Coulibiaca, Pea and Tomato Timbales, contain oregano and Red Pepper, Spinach and Mushroom Loaf marjoram as well.

Materials And Methods

The actions of lentinan were proposed to be host-mediated in that the lymphocytes played important roles. The T lymphocytes from lentinan-, crude mushroom homogenate- and buffer-fed (controls) AKR mice were inoculated into the immunodeficient mice. Two groups of each type of mice (nude and SCID), consisting of ten mice in each group, were included in the study. Tumours were induced using the six human colon carcinoma cell lines. Each of these tumour cell lines was inoculated into 20 athymic mice at the same time as the inoculation of lymphocytes. Ten of them were inoculated with T lymphocytes extracted from lentinan-fed mice while the other ten mice were inoculated with T lymphocytes from either crude mushroom homogenate or buffer-fed mice (controls). Only two cell lines (LoVo and SW620 cells) were used for the SCID mice experiments as there was a shortage of such mice. The levels of four cytokines, namely IL-1 a (interleukin-1 a), IL-2 (interleukin-2), TNF-a (tumour necrosis...

Toxins Perturb the Pool of Actin Monomers

In contrast, the monomer-polymer equilibrium is shifted in the direction of filaments by jasplakolinode, another sponge toxin, and by phalloidin, which is isolated from Amanita phalloides (the angel of death mushroom). Phal-loidin poisons a cell by binding at the interface between sub-units in F-actin, thereby locking adjacent subunits together and preventing actin filaments from depolymerizing. Even when actin is diluted below its critical concentration, phal-loidin-stabilized filaments will not depolymerize. Fluorescence-labeled phalloidin, which binds only to F-actin, is commonly used to stain actin filaments for light microscopy.

Reflexive And Learned Responses To Pathogens

Although laboratory work has paired specific flavours with distinct illness-inducing agents, conditioned taste aversions occur naturally where the flavour and the illness-inducing agent are often part of the same stimulus complex. For example, a poisonous mushroom may possess a specific novel taste and also delivers a toxin to the animal that consumes it. The animal will learn to associate the effect of the toxin with the taste of the mushroom and will subsequently avoid it. Such taste aversions are highly adaptive an animal that does not learn to avoid a flavour associated with sickness is at risk of poisoning and death. Thus avoidance of an illness-inducing flavour is an effective behavioural defence.

Dendritic Spine Structure

Dendritic spines essentially consist of a head and neck attached to the dendritic membrane. Extensive electron and light microscopy studies of brain tissue have shown that dendritic spines have multiform shapes that are classified as thin, stubby, or mushroom shape (Figure 18.1), all of which can be found simultaneously on the same dendrites2,3. The classic and most representative mushroom-shaped spines have a large head and narrow neck, whereas thin spines have a smaller head stubby spines show no obvious constriction between the head and its attachment to the dendritic shaft (Figure 18.1). However, the static microscopic view of spine shapes only partially reflects the real in vivo situation because, at least in developing neurons, the shape of about 50 of the spines changes over periods of minutes or hours4. Spine motility and modifications are developmentally regulated and, in mature neurons, there are fewer transitions between categories and the number of stable spines...

Novel Laccase Catalytic Systems 2311 New Laccases

Recently reported laccase analogs, classified as such based on their catalyzed reactions, include a dimeric (43 kDa subunit) Tricholoma giganteum (mushroom) oxidase which also shows an anti HIV-1 reverse transcriptase activity 160 , a dimeric (40 kDa subunit) Tellima grandiflora (plant) oxidase 161 , and an 85 kDa Nephotettix cincticeps (insect) oxidase 162 . However, these oxidases have an N-terminus either unknown or not homologous to typical laccases. Thus more structural and enzymological information is needed to determine whether these oxidases belong to the laccase (or multi-Cu oxidases) family.

Occasional Plasmids are Linear or Made of RNA

Single Stranded Plasmid Hairpin

Linear plasmids are also found among eukaryotes. The fungus Flammulina velu-tipes, commonly known as the enoki mushroom, has two very small linear plasmids within its mitochondria. The dairy yeast, Kluyveromyces lactis, has a linear plasmid that normally replicates in the cytoplasm. However, on occasion the plasmid relocates to the nucleus where it replicates as a circle. Circularization is due to site specific recombination involving the inverted repeats at the ends of the linear form of the plasmid. The physiological role of these plasmids is obscure.

Growth Habit And Reproduction

Asexual Fungi Fruiting Bodies Acervulus

Fungi can also produce specialized structures such as microsclerotia or sclerotia (a compacted mass of melanized cells) to enhance their survival during periods of unfavorable temperature and moisture conditions. Examples of sexual spores include aeciospores, ascospores, basidiospores, oospores, sporidia, and zygospores. In general, ascospores are produced in a specialized fruiting structure called an ascocarp. Four different types of ascocarps have been described apothecium, cleistothecium, perithe-cium, and pseudothecium (Figure 6.4). However, some fungi in the phylum Ascomycota do not produce ascospores in an ascocarp. Basidiospores are produced on a basidium that is or is not enclosed in a fruiting body or mushroom (basidiocorp), while oospores and zygospores are usually borne directly on or in hyphal cell (Figures 6.5 and 6.6).

Functional Analysis Techniques in the Drosophila Nervous System

Calcium is the primary trigger of neuronal activity and as such is the most important ion to be imaged dynamically. In Drosophila, Ca2+ has been measured in cultured giant neurons (see later Berke et al., 2002), larval NMJs (Karunanithi et al., 1997 Umbach et al., 1998a,b Dawson-Scully et al., 2000 Kuromi and Kidokoro, 2002), adult photoreceptors (Ranganathan et al., 1994 Peretz et al., 1994 Hardie, 1996), and kenyon cells of the adult brain mushroom body (MB) (Rosay et al., 2001 Wang et al., 2001). These studies used various methods to generate calcium measurements, including a transgenically expressed calcium-sensitive protein (proaequorin Rosay et al., 1997, 2001), and either injected (Hardie, 1996) or extracellularly loaded calcium-sensitive fluorescent dyes (Karunanithi et al., 1997 Umbach et al., 1998a,b Dawson-Scully et al., 2000 Wang et al., 2001 Berke et al., 2002 Kuromi and Kidokoro, 2002). Controlled photo-activation of caged calcium has also been achieved in larval...

Neurotransmitters and receptors

Adipose Photosynthesis Clinical Research

Showed that there were some actions of acetylcholine which could be mimicked by administration of muscarine, the active component of the poisonous mushroom Amanita muscaria these effects were abolished by small doses of atropine. They correspond roughly to the effects of the parasympathetic nervous system. Other effects of acetylcholine were still apparent after blockade with muscarine, and these were similar to the effects of nicotine (the active component of tobacco). The effects produced by nicotine included stimulation of the contraction of skeletal muscle, and the release of adrenaline from the adrenal medulla. We now recognise that these effects are mediated through two specific types of acetylcholine receptor, the muscarinic receptor and the nicotinic receptor. Both nicotinic and muscarinic receptors have since been further subdivided on the basis of cloning of homologous receptor proteins. Cholinergic synapses within the central nervous system are nicotinic outside the central...

Changes In Brain Anatomy And The Synapse

Thin Stubby Mushroom Dendrite Spine

The first hints of changes in the synapse were seen in humans in 1985. Adult FXS males were shown to have longer thin spines, and less short mature spines30. Post mortem examination of FXS patient brain tissue revealed their cells to have fewer spines with mushroom or stubby (mature) morphologies. Paradoxically, there was also an increase in overall spine density in these FXS patients30. Although these results are indicative of dendritic changes in FXS, it should be noted that the dendritic spines of only six FXS patients of various ages have been examined, many of whom have been on medication for a significant part of their lives. Thus it is not clear if synaptic changes are central to the disorder, and turning to an animal model of FXS was an important step in validating any dendritic abnormalities. The work in slice culture neurons34 has led to the hypothesis that a lack of FMRP leads to improper synapse pruning and maturation. FMRP appears to have an involvement in synapse...

Decoding The Projection Neuron Population Output

Varicosities Neuron

Antennal lobe projection neurons project to the mushroom body where they send distributed collateral projections throughout the calyx. In locust, each projection neuron was estimated to make over 600 (possibly as many as 2,000) output synapses (Perez-Orive et al. 2002). More recent results (Jortner, Farivar, and Laurent, in preparation) indicate that connectivity between projection neurons and Kenyon cells is in fact a lot more widespread, but the reasoning presented below still applies. Our early estimates come from anatomical analysis of projection neuron axonal projections and from electron microscopy of axonal presynaptic varicosities (Leitch and Laurent 1996). If we suppose that each pro-jectionneuron makes 1200 individual outputs on average, the projection neuron population makes a total of 1200 x 830 output synapses in the calyx. If those synapses are made onto all 50,000 Kenyon cells (i.e., if all Kenyon cells receive olfactory information), each Kenyon cell must be connected...

The Shank And Homer Families

The overexpression of Shank1 and Homer1b in hippocampal neurons accelerates the maturation of filopodial-like protrusions in mature spines, and promotes the enlargement of mature spines (which acquire the classical mushroom shape) without increasing their number. Shank and Homer also cooperate to promote the accumulation of PSD proteins in dendritic spines such as GKAP and NR1, and increase the F-actin content of spines70.

Neuronal pathways and conditioning

Figure 9.4 The morphology of the brain and suboesophageal ganglion of the bee to show the structures and pathways involved in conditioning the proboscis-extension reflex to odours. (a) Information about odours is processed in the olfactory lobes, which send outputs both to the proto-cerebrum and to the calyces of the mushroom bodies, where Kenyon cells have their dendrites. Kenyon cell axons have branches to two separate output lobes of a mushroom body, from where interneurons travel to various brain regions, including the protocerebrum. Some interneurons travel from the protocerebrum to the suboesophageal and the segmental ganglia. Motor neurons that control proboscis muscles are situated in the suboesophageal ganglion, which is also where sucrose-detecting chemo-sensory neurons terminate. (b) A diagram to show the extent of the innervation pattern of neuron VUMmxl, whose cell body and dendrites are in the suboesophageal ganglion. (a and b after Hammer, 1993 reprinted with permission...

Muscarinic Receptors and Signal Transduction

Classical studies by Sir Henry Dale demonstrated that the receptors activated by muscarine, an alkaloid isolated from the mushroom Amanita muscaria, are the same receptors activated by ACh released from parasympathetic nerve endings, from which the general notion that muscarinic agonists have parasympatho-mimetic properties was born. This conclusion is true but incomplete, and we now know that muscarinic receptors have a broader distribution and many functional roles. To understand the actions of choli-nomimetic drugs it is essential to recognize that muscarinic receptors (1) mediate the activation of effectors by ACh released from parasympathetic nerve

The role of an identified neuron in conditioning

VUMmxl can deliver information about a sucrose reward to the olfactory lobes and the mushroom body, the sites that the experiments with local cooling and octopamine injection showed are important in conditioning. A key event in conditioning is that excitation ofVUMmx1 is closely associated in time with stimulation of particular odour-activated pathways. A great deal of information about the molecular mechanisms for coincidence detection in neurons has been gained in studies on the gill-withdrawal reflex of the mollusc Aplysia (Box 9.1). The mechanism by which VUMmx1 establishes conditioning is likely to involve intracellular messenger molecules such as cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP and, in Drosophila, mutations that affect production of these molecules also cause impairment of memory (Belvin & Yin, 1997). Conditioning of proboscis extension in bees is quite complex because a large range of possible stimuli can become associated with the response, and it is probable that the complexity of...

Summary Of Fmrp Proposed Mechanism Of Action

Lithium chloride has long been in use in human patients for the treatment of mania, after being approved by the FDA in the 1970s. There are currently clinical trials ongoing to test the efficacy of lithium in FXS patients, and some evidence exists that there may be some benefits stabilizing mood swings in FXS patients19. The potential benefits of lithium have been brought to light by a research group that has looked at the effects of LiCl and MPEP in the Drosophila model of FXS. Both treatments restored some phenotypes of the animals missing dFMRP . Only two mGluRs are present in the Drosophila genome, DmGluRA and DmGluRB, more closely resembling vertebrate group 2 mGluRs. Possibly because of its effects on these mGluRs LiCl seemingly restored memory for courtship behavior in knockout flies, along with mushroom body deficits caused by the lack of dFMRP. Lithium is linked to the mGluR pathway through it s effects on CREB binding and inositol triphosphate receptor mediated calcium...

Botanical Herbal Medicines Used Against Cancer

Many mushrooms used in Oriental botanical medicine contain b-glucans, a class of polysaccharide molecule. These agents have been widely studied for their anticancer effects. Most human Phase III trials of mushroom-derived b-glucans have used the polysaccharide Kureha (PSK), an extract of Coriolus versicolor, or an extract from the culture medium of Schizophyllum commune Fries known as SPG. Trials typically compared chemotherapy or radiotherapy plus b-glucan versus conventional treatment alone, finding superior survival for PSK compared to controls following colectomy,56,57 gastrectomy,58,59 and esophagectomy.60 In a typical trial, 120 patients with Dukes' C colorectal cancer undergoing curative resection were randomized to PSK or placebo and followed for up to 10 years. Significant differences between groups for both disease-free and overall survival emerged, with median survival in the PSK group approximately 5 years compared to just over 4 years in controls.56 SPG was...

Divergence Of Small Gtpase Pathways In Dendrites

Shank proteins, like other multidomain postsynaptic scaffolds, link receptors and the cytoskeleton. The role of shank proteins for the generation of dendritic spines and as important scaffolds within the PSD is described in Chapter 18. Remarkably, overexpression of shank induces enhanced structural and functional maturation of the postsynaptic receptor complex, concomitant with an earlier morphological maturation of dendritic spines50,51. In aspiny neurons, overexpression of shank is sufficient to induce spine-like structures52, suggesting that shank is required in the transition from immature dendritic filopodia, which do not carry postsynaptic specializations, to proper, mushroom-shaped, postsynaptic spines. Thus the regulation of shank should be of crucial importance during synapse formation. Whereas so far no signaling mechanisms have been identified which act on the shank proteins themselves, an interesting feature of all three shank family members is the prominent dendritic...

What Is The Causitive Agent Of Bread Mold

Mold Substrate Substrate Mycelium

Surface of the bread the rest is buried deep within. Some mycelia appear above the surface of the substrate as a mushroom, orpuffball (figure 12.17). These macroscopic structures produce reproductive spores. Some large mushrooms are edible. Figure 12.17 A Meadow Mushroom, Agaricus campestri (a) A drawing shows the extensive underground mycelium with a fruiting body emerging as a small button. (b) A photograph of Lepiota rachodes, a similar mushroom, showing the fruiting bodies and gills. (c)The underside of the cap is composed of radiating gills. (d) Magnified view of the surface of the gill showing a mass of basidia, bearing spores. For their hallucinogenic properties, certain mushrooms have long been used as part of religious ceremonies in some cultures. The lethal effects of many mushrooms have also been known for centuries. The poisonous effects of a rye smut called ergot were known during the Middle Ages, but only recently has the active chemical been purified from this fungus to...

Operant visual learning and memory

Schematic representation of mushroom bodies (MB) and Central Complex (CX) neuropile. Dorsal is up the most anterior is the first plane. MB y lobes, striped a and p lobes a' and p' lobes ped, peduncle Ca, calyx CX EB, ellipsoid body FB, fan-shaped body NO, nodulli PB, protocerebral bridge Fig. 4. Schematic representation of mushroom bodies (MB) and Central Complex (CX) neuropile. Dorsal is up the most anterior is the first plane. MB y lobes, striped a and p lobes a' and p' lobes ped, peduncle Ca, calyx CX EB, ellipsoid body FB, fan-shaped body NO, nodulli PB, protocerebral bridge

Derivatives of ACh Methacholine Carbachol and Bethanechol

Pilocarpine is a naturally occurring cholinomimetic alkaloid that is structurally distinct from the choline esters. It is a tertiary amine that crosses membranes relatively easily. Therefore, it is rapidly absorbed by the cornea of the eye, and it can cross the blood-brain barrier. Pilocarpine is a pure muscarinic receptor agonist, and it is unaffected by cholinesterases. Muscarine is an alkaloid with no therapeutic use, but it can produce dangerous cholinomimetic stimulation following ingestion of some types of mushrooms (e.g., Inocybes).

Neurotransmitter at central synapses and at the vertebrate neuromuscular junction

'Muscarinic', so-called because they bind muscarine (a mushroom poison that kills flies, Musca). Mus-carinic receptors are 'metabotropic', i.e. they do not include a channel but rather exert their effect by modulation of intracellular signal transduction cascades (Wess 1993).

Herbal Immunostimulant Compounds

The mechanisms by which herbal compounds exert their immunostimulant effects are not well understood, but often they include the production of im-munostimulating cytokines or modulation of cytokine effects. For example, Astragalus polysac-charides have been reported to potentiate the in-vitro antitumor cytotoxicity of lymphokine-activated killer cells generated with low-dose IL-2. The exact mechanism was uncertain but could have been due to Astragalus-induced increases in IL-2 receptor expression on the LAK cells, or some other form of increased IL-2 binding.14 As another example, one study reported that Ganoderma polysaccharides increased production of cytokines by macrophages and T cells and increased the cytotoxic effect of macrophages against leukemia cells in vitro. The cytokines that were increased included IL-1, IL-6, TNF, and interferon-gamma.15 Lastly, these compounds may work synergistically with IL-2 itself or possibly other natural compounds that increase IL-2 production....


One of Schmiedeberg's most outstanding students was John Jacob Abel, who has been called the founder of American pharmacology (Fig 1.1). Abel occupied the chair of pharmacology first at the University of Michigan and then at Johns Hopkins University. Among his most important research accomplishments is an examination of the chemistry and isolation of the active principles from the adrenal medulla (a monobenzyl derivative of epinephrine) and the pancreas (crystallization of insulin). He also examined mushroom poisons, investigated the chemotherapeutic actions of the arsenicals and anti-monials, conducted studies on tetanus toxin, and designed a model for an artificial kidney. In addition, Abel founded the Journal of Experimental Medicine, the Journal of Biological Chemistry, and the Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. His devotion to pharmacological research, his enthusiasm for the training of students in this new discipline, and his establishment of journals and...


Sapers received his Ph.D. in food technology from MIT in 1961. He joined the USDA's Eastern Regional Research Center (ERRC) in 1968, after 2 years at the U.S. Army Natick Laboratories, and 6 years in private industry. He has conducted research on dehydrated potato stability, apple volatiles, safety of home canned tomatoes, utilization of natural pigments, pigmentation of small fruits, cherry dyeing, control of enzymatic browning in minimally processed fruits and vegetables, mushroom washing, and microbiological safety of fresh produce, which is his current area of research. He has been a Lead Scientist at ERRC since 1991. Dr. Sapers has published 110 scientific papers, 3 book chapters and 5 patents. He is an active member of the Institute of Food Technologists' Fruit and Vegetable Products Division, and the International Fresh-cut Produce Association.


This chapter mainly describes the microbiology and microbial spoilage of the white button mushroom Agaricus bisporus. Cultural and postharvest practices to enhance the quality of fresh white button mushrooms have also been reviewed. Since the casing layer largely influences the microbiology of fresh mushrooms, it is possible that the microbiology of mushrooms grown using casing from the similar sources is largely similar. Cultural and postharvest practices that enhance agaricus quality may also be applicable to other commercial varieties such as crimini, portabella, shiitake, oyster, maaitake, and other exotic mushrooms varieties commonly seen in retail outlets. While we have noted significant increases in yeast populations during postharvest storage of fresh mushrooms, the role played by yeast in the microbial spoilage of fresh mushrooms is largely unknown. Hence, as a starting point, the predominant yeast varieties in fresh mushrooms need to be characterized. While it is our...

Drug preparations

While Hofmann describes 11 classes of hallucinogenic compounds which can be isolated from botanicals, by far the most common hallucinogen of abuse appears to be LSD.(14) Recently the serotonin-2A receptor has been shown to bind strongly to hallucinogenic drugs, and the drugs appear to act as partial agonists. (15) LSD is psychoactive in a single droplet of solvent. The drug is easily dissolved in an aqueous solution. Drops of the drug are placed on sugar cubes or blotting paper stamped with coloured cartoon figures to mark the drug's location. Sheets of the paper are then distributed, and the figures ingested. Injection is not necessary, and seldom used as a means of administration. Dosages commonly range from 25 to 100 pg. A hallucinogenic trip can occur after 75 pg. Other hallucinogens, such as dimethyltryptamine, must be injected. Common botanical hallucinogens include fungi and angiosperms (flower-bearing plants), of which approximately 100 are recognized to possess hallucinogenic...

Acoustic Neuromas

Acoustic neuromas arise almost exclusively from the vestibular branches of the VIII nerve complex hence, they are more correctly referred to as vestibular schwannomas. They expand the porus acousticus forming a cone-shaped mass with a canalicular and CPA component in 61 of patients. In 21 of cases, the canalicular component becomes sausage-shaped and mushrooms out of the porus into the CPA, leading to a dumbbell appearance. In the remainder (18 ), the tumors appear to be largely confined to the CPA with no significant intracanalicular component 4 . The laterally arising tumors tend to present earlier with audiovestibular symptoms. Those arising within the CPA are more likely to present with signs of trigeminal compression, cerebellar dysfunction and raised intracranial pressure. A recent analysis of 473 patients with acoustic neuromas treated in Cambridge shows that 89.3 presented with typical audiovestibular symptoms. Of the 10.7 with an atypical presenting symptom, facial numbness...

Slowing Maturation

A compromise must be found The carbon dioxide concentration should be not too high, or the mushrooms will not remain white, nor should it be too low, or they will develop too rapidly. Carbon dioxide concentrations between 2.5 and 5 and oxygen concentrations between 5 and 10 appear to be optimal. How can such atmospheres be created The Montfavet team compared new microperforated polypropylene films and stretchable polyvinyl chloride films. Mushrooms were placed in baskets, some wrapped and some not, and stored at temperatures between 4 c (39 f) (the legally mandated temperature for cold storage of ready-to-eat salad greens) and 10 c (50 f) for eight days. After eight days of storage at the high end of this range the veils on 85 of the unwrapped mushrooms had opened, whereas maturation was slowed at all temperatures in those that were covered with both types of film. But the old polyvinyl chloride type, being less permeable to humidity, was more successful at retarding development. The...

Psd95 Accumulation

In contrast, a number of studies have shown some movement of PSD-95 clusters, albeit very slow (up to 1 im min)24. The dynamics for PSD-95 clusters include splitting of clusters24,25, lateral movement in shafts24, movement into and out of established spines, and movement within dendritic filopodia24,25. Spines represent the final maturation step of glutamatergic synapses. These stable, mushroom-shaped protrusions from the dendritic shaft are thought to act as compartments for the restriction of local second messenger systems to individual postsynaptic densities26. In contrast, dendritic filopodia are highly dynamic protrusions, which are thought to be involved in initiating synaptogenic contact and comprise morphological precursors of synaptic spines27.


Including the 'mushroom bodies', a central processing area shown to play a part in learning in other insects as well ( Drosophila). The US pathway begins with the chemoreceptors that sense the sucrose. They send information to central motor neurons that control the proboscis, and to interneurons that innervate a number of brain areas and subserve the modulatory function of the US. Activity of one of these modulatory neurons, named VUMmx1, was shown to correlate with the US and, furthermore, to be capable of substituting for it (Hammer 1993 see 'mimicry' under criterion, method). The reward function offood can be substituted by microinjection of the neurotransmitter octopamine into the mushroom bodies or the antennal lobes (Hammer and Menzel 1998). Specific temporal patterns of activation of cAMP-dependent protein kinase sustain the associative long-term PER memory in the lobes (Muller 2000). The presence of extensive projections of US-related interneurons in the brain indicates that...

Phylum Basidiomycota

Basidiomycetes (buh-siD-ee-oh-MIE-SEETS) are often called club fungi because during sexual reproduction, they produce small, clublike reproductive structures called basidia (buh-SID-ee-uh) (singular, basidium). Sexual reproduction in basidiomycetes is shown in Figure 26-5. The spore-bearing structure of basidiomycetes is an aboveground structure called the basidiocarp (buh-SID-ee-oh-KAHRP). Mushrooms are basidiocarps. The basidiocarp consists of a stem called a stalk and a flattened structure known as a cap. On the underside of the cap are rows of gills that radiate out from the center. As shown in step Q, each gill is lined with thousands of dikaryotic (die-KAR-ee-AHT-ik) basidia. Dikaryotic cells contain two nuclei. Step shows that in each basidium, two nuclei fuse to form a zygote (2n). In step , the zygote undergoes meiosis to form four haploid nuclei. These develop into four basidiospores (buh-SID-ee-oh-SPAWRZ), which are released into the air. As shown in step Q, under favorable...


The term hallucinogen is often used to describe a drug that produces a change in sensory perception, usually either visual or auditory. Drugs commonly assigned to this class include lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), mescaline (derived from the peyote cactus), and psilocybin (derived from a mushroom). However, this rather limited definition fails to include the other prominent property of this class of drugs, which is a change in thought and mood. For this reason the term is sometimes used interchangeably with psychedelic or psychotomimetic, the latter term representing the CNS effects beyond the hallucination itself. Most literal definitions of the term hallucinogen are inadequate, but it should be used to signify substances that consistently produce changes in sensory perception, thought, and mood. An hallucinogen is a drug that reliably produces alterations in perceptions as a primary effect. Drugs that should not be included are those that produce alterations in sensory perception...


Polysaccharides have been studied both in crude form (the entire polysaccharide fraction of a plant) and semi-purified and purified forms (various levels of purification for specific polysaccharides). Purified polysaccharides that have received research attention include lentinan, from the edible mushroom Lentinus edodes (shiitake), schizophyllan, from the fungus Schizophyllum commune, and pachyman, from the fungus Poria cocos. Semipurified polysaccharides include PSK and PSP, from the mushroom Coriolus versicolor, and KS-2, from Lentinus edodes. All three crude, semipurified, and purified polysaccharides can produce antitumor effects in animals, and some beneficial effects have been reported in human patients.11,12

Individual Compounds

Six polysaccharide-rich plants or extracts are examined in this chapter Astragalus, Eleutherococcus, Gan-oderma, shiitake, PSK, and PSP. These plants and extracts act in part by increasing production of immu-nostimulating cytokines (such as IL-1, IL-2, IL-6, interferons, TNF, and colony-stimulating factors) by increasing the responsiveness of cytokine receptors and or by decreasing the production or reducing the action of cytokines that inhibit the immune system, such as TGF-beta and IL-10.13-21 The resulting effect is, in gen- In the following, only brief discussions are provided for most compounds, since much of the information on immune stimulation is included in Chapter 12 and Table H.1. A more in-depth discussion is provided for the mushroom polysaccharides PSK and PSP, however, because they have been researched extensively.

Hepatic failure

Hepatic encephalopathy defines, and is the sine qua non for, fulminant hepatic failure. The pathogenesis is associated with widespread hepatic necrosis, commonly due to an acute viral infection or exposure to hepatotoxins. Common hepatotoxins that lead to fulminant liver failure include acetaminophen, isoniazid, halothane, valproic acid, mushroom toxin, and carbon tetrachloride. (59 Hepatic encephalopathy that accompanies acute fulminant liver failure differs from that associated with chronic hepatic impairment in two aspects first, it is rarely due to a reversible factor, and, second, it is frequently associated with cerebral oedema, which might be reversible and a treatable factor. Therapy includes protein restriction and lactulose. Cerebral oedema is the leading cause of death in acute hepatic failure. It may respond to the administration of mannitol and measures to control agitation. (59) Other signs of hepatic failure include hypoglycaemia, gastrointestinal haemorrhage, and...

Cork Scrutinized

Phenomenon led them to examine the behavior of corks more closely. In champagne making, before the familiar mushroom-shaped cork is inserted, producers use crown caps equipped with a temporary seal that can be removed to add sugar. This seal comes in either cork or plastic (a synthetic polymer derivative). The civc team studied the two types of material and found that cork seals were not uniformly impermeable, which explains the variations that are observed from bottle to bottle.

Meat dishes

From all the different meat varieties, lamb meat dishes are the ones which are most often seasoned with oregano. For example, the following recipes found in Healthy Home Cooking series of Time-Life Books for Fresh Ways with Lamb (1990) contain oregano lamb meat salads, marinated lamb meat cutlets, lamb meat noisettes with julienned vegetables, lamb sausages on skewers, lamb roasts, lamb steaks, lamb shanks, lamb lasagna, lamb terrain, lamb and leek parcels, lamb timbales and lamb meat loaf. Marjoram is included in the following dishes lamb cutlets, lamb steak, lamb and mushroom burgers, lamb moussaka, baked stuffed onions with lamb meat, lamb timbales. The other spices and herbs used with oregano were black pepper, parsley, marjoram, capers, thyme, sage, rosemary, basil, garlic, coriander and cayenne pepper. Those spices and herbs used within marjoram were garlic, parsley, thyme, black pepper, chives, bay leaf, nutmeg, and horseradish.

Separating Aromas

Not all aromatic molecules are fat soluble, however. One way to dissolve them is to use a separating funnel, long familiar to chemists as a useful device for separating mixtures. Put oil and water in the funnel, and then add chopped or ground pieces of an aromatic food such as cepe mushrooms. When the funnel is shaken, the hydrophobic aromatic molecules are dissolved in the oil while the hydrophilic aromatic molecules are dissolved in the water.


Two major subgroups occur within the class Basidiomycetes. The subclass Homobasidiomycetidae comprises mushrooms, bracket fungi, and puffballs. The spores of these organisms constitute a significant portion of the spores found in the air during nocturnal periods and wet weather. These abundant spores are confirmed to be allergenic (134,145,146) and can provoke bronchoconstriction in sensitive asthmatic subjects (14.7). Numerous species, including Pleurotus ostreatus, Cantharellus cibarius, Clavata cyanthiformis, Geaster saccatum, Pisolithus tinctorius, Scleroderma aerolatum, Ganoderma lucidum, Psilocybe cubensis, Agaricus, Armillaria, and Hypholoma species, and Merulisus lacrymans ( dry rot ) have been identified as allergens.

Milk Thistle

Milk thistle (Silybum Carduus marianus) is a spiny European plant with white-veined leaves and milky sap, the seed of which is used to treat liver disease. Milk thistle seed extract is used orally in the treatment of alcoholic and other cirrhoses and in Europe intravenously for its hepatoprotective effect in Amanita and other mushroom poisonings. It is grown in this country primarily as a liver cleanser and is reputed to protect this organ from a wide array of toxins. Milk thistle seed contains the active principle silymarin, a complex of flavonolignan compounds including silibinin (silybin), silidianin, and silychristin.

Hydrogen Peroxide

Hydrogen peroxide is a highly effective antimicrobial agent against bacteria but is less active against yeasts, fungi, and viruses 59 . Characteristics and potential food applications of hydrogen peroxide as a sanitizer for produce were recently reviewed by the author 74 . Hydrogen peroxide may be considered as a potential alternative to chlorine. Numerous studies have demonstrated the efficacy of dilute hydrogen peroxide in sanitizing fresh produce including mushrooms 75-77 , apples 16,67,78 , melons 34,69,70,73 , eggplant, and sweet red pepper 80 . In side-by-side comparisons, dilute (1 to 5 ) hydrogen peroxide washes were at least as effective as 200 ppm chlorine 16,79 . When applied to apples with vigorous agitation at an elevated temperature (50 to 60 C), population reductions approaching 3 logs were obtained 67 . However, temperatures exceeding 60 C could not be used without inducing browning of the apple skin. Hydrogen peroxide treatments The presence of residual hydrogen...


The use of pathogenic agents as weapons has been documented for more than two millennia. The ancient Romans carried out biological warfare by putting carrion into the wells of their enemies to poison the water supply Such crude biowarfare tactics continued well into the 20th century.3'4 During the 14th-century siege of Kaffa (now Feodossia, Ukraine), the attacking Tartar soldiers experienced an epidemic of bubonic plague. The Tartars capitalized on the devastating disease and used the bodies of plague victims as weapons. They catapulted their own soldiers' diseased bodies into the walled city of Kaffa in an attempt to inflict harm on their enemy and likely contributed to the European plague epidemic during the Middle Ages.5-7 Smallpox and measles contained within blankets and clothing were used by the Conquistadors and British as biological weapons against Native Americans. It is believed that such tactics influenced the outcome of the French and Indian Wars.5'7 Plague was used as a...

Six Kingdoms

The second kingdom of eukaryotes is Fungi (FUHN-jie). The kingdom Fungi consists of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that are unicellular or multicellular and that gain nutrients in a unique way. Unlike animal cells and some protists, fungi absorb rather than ingest nutrients. The about 70,000 species of fungi include mushrooms, puffballs, rusts, smuts, mildews, and molds.

Fungi In Industry

Mucor Tofu

Poisonous mushrooms, such as this Amanita virosa (death angel) harm people when they are mistaken for edible mushrooms. Poisonous mushrooms, such as this Amanita virosa (death angel) harm people when they are mistaken for edible mushrooms. Many fungi are valuable food sources for humans. Yeast, such as species of the genus Saccharomyces, is an important nutritional supplement because it contains vitamins, minerals, and other nutrients. Species of the genus Agaricus (white button), shiitake, and portabella mushrooms are often found in grocery stores in the United States. People also prize the taste of other fungi, such as truffles and morels, which are pictured in Figure 26-11. Truffles and morels are ascocarps found near the roots of trees. Table 26-3 summarizes some of the uses of fungi in food.

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