ATP and Blood Vessels

Arteries and veins receive a rich sensory innervation.42 Sensory nerves innervating blood vessels have been implicated in the pain associated with angina, embolism, myocardial infection, and migraine, although local acidification43 44 and released ATP have also been expected to cause nociception through the activation of ionotropic and metabotropic receptors innervating cardiac myocytes in those situations. Some reports have suggested that vasosensory nerves may be involved in reflex regulation of the cardiovascular system.45'46 ATP, ADP, UTP, and adenosine are released from endothelial cells and platelets to act on smooth muscle P2X1 receptors and on P2X2 and P2X4 receptors in some vessels, resulting in vasoconstriction.47'48 They also act on smooth muscle P2Y receptors, resulting in vasodilatation.47 Anandamide, a candidate for endogenous ligand for TRPV1, induced vasodilatation by activating TRPV1 on perivascular sensory nerves followed by release of calcitonin-gene-related peptide (CGRP).40 Thus, TRPV1 may also be involved in the regulation of vessel tone.

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Headache Happiness

Headache Happiness

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