Although vesicles formed by lipids are central to a wide array of applications in drug delivery, biomaterials, and diagnostics, their polymeric counterparts comprising of diblock copolymers (poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(ethylethylene), poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(butadiene), or poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene sulfide)) offer significant improvements in structural stability, membrane fluidity, and thermal resistance (Figure 15.1C) [162-166]. In addition, compared to lipids, amphiphilic block copolymers have superior performance such as higher solubilization capacity, bioavailability, and therapeutic potential in vivo [167-169]. The use of stimuli-responsive polymeric components and antigen-specific surface modifications can further enhance the specificity and efficiency of drug delivery [170]. These biomimetic nanoparticles exemplify the power of incorporating biological principles into the design of materials at the nanoscale.

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