Electron Beam Lithography

The SEM and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) have been widely used for surface characterization under high vacuum and have a spatial resolution of ~ 1 nm. A primary use of SEM for nanofabrication is in EBL. Where an electron beam is used to expose a resist layer, typically poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), to create surface features. EBL can make positive and negative features at the nanoscale (<100 nm), and can be used to create masks for photolithography and soft lithography. Ion-beam lithography is similar to EBL, with the distinction that a focused ion beam is used to create patterns on substrates. The primary advantage of ion-beam lithography over EBL lies in minimal backscattering and diffraction effects in the resist layer, which allows the generation of patterns with higher resolutions and smaller feature sizes (sub-1 mm) [69].

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