Dip Pen Nanolithography and Nanografting

DPN is an AFM-derived, direct-write method to transport chemical species adsorbed on an AFM tip to the substrate with nanometer resolution [75]. To date DPN has been used to deposit a multitude of organic and inorganic materials as well as more complex polymers, dendrimers, and oligonucleotides onto a variety of substrates [76]. Nanografting is another AFM-based technique with potential applications in bionanomanufacturing [77]. Nanografting is accomplished by using an AFM tip to displace assembled molecules on a surface by force and allow other molecules to self-assemble in the wake. Nanografting can be used to create nanoscale-reactive sites within an unreactive matrix, which can provide a patterned template for subsequent covalent immobilization of other moieties of interest.

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