1. Kreek, M. J. and Hartman, N. (1982) Chronic use of opioids and antipsychotic drugs: side effects, effects on endogenous opioids, and toxicity. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 398, 151-172.

2. Young, E., Bronstein, D., and Akil, H. (1993) Proopiomelanocortin biosynthesis, processing and secretion: functional implications, in Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology, Opioids I (Herz, A., Akil, H., and Simon, E. J., eds.), Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 393-421.

3. Rossier, J. (1993) Biosynthesis of enkephalins and proenkephalin-derived peptides, in Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology, Opioids I (Herz, A., Akil, H., and Simon, E. J., eds.), Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 423-447.

4. Day, R., Trujillo, K. A., and Akil, H. (1993) Prodynorphin biosynthesis and posttranslational processing, in Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology, Opioids I (Herz, A., Akil, H., and Simon, E. J., eds.), Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 449-470.

5. Simon, E. J., Hiller, J. M., and Edelman, I. (1973) Stereospecific binding of the potent narcotic analgesic 3H-etorphin to rat brain homogenate. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 70, 1947-1949.

6. Pert, C. B. and Snyder, S. H. (1973) Opiate receptor: demonstration in nervous tissue. Science 179, 1011-1014.

7. Terenius, L. (1973) Stereospecific interaction between narcotic analgesics and a synaptic plasma membrane fraction of rat brain cortex. Acta Pharmacol. Toxicol. 32, 317-320.

8. Besse, D., Lombard, M. C., Zajac, J. M., and Roques, B. P. (1990) Pre- and post-synaptic distribution of <x and □ opioid receptors in the superficial layers of the cervical dorsal horn of the rat spinal cord. Brain Res. 521, 15-22.

9. Hughes, J., Smith, T. W., Kosterlitz, H. W., Fotherghill, L. A., Morgan, B. A., and Morris, H. R. (1975) Identification of two related pentapeptides from the brain with potent opiate agonist activity. Nature 258, 577-579.

10. Roques, B. P. (2000) Novel approaches to targeting neuropeptide systems. Trends Pharmacol. Sci. 21, 475-483.

11. Roques, B. P., Noble, F., Daugé, V., Fournié-Zaluski, M. C., and Beaumont, A. (1993) Neutral endopeptidase 24.11: structure, inhibition, and experimental and clinical pharmacology. Pharmacol. Rev. 45, 87-146.

12. Waksman, G., Hamel, E., Fournié-Zaluski, M. C., and Roques, B. P. (1986) Autoradiographic comparison of the distribution of the neutral endopeptidase "enkephalinase" and of mu and delta opioid receptors in rat brain. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 83, 1523-1527.

13. Mansour, A., and Watson, S. J. (1993) Anatomical distribution of opioid receptors in mammalians: an overview, in Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology. Opioids I (Herz, A., Akil, H., and Simon, A. J., eds.), pp. 79-105, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Germany.

14. Noble, F., Banisadr, G., Jardinaud, F., Popovici, T., Lai-Kuen, R., Chen, H., Bischoff, L., Melik Parsadaniantz, S., Fournié-Zaluski, M. C., and Roques, B. P. (2001) First discrete autoradiographic distribution of aminopeptidase N in various structures of rat brain and spinal cord using the selective iodinated inhibitor [125I]RB 129. Neuroscience 105, 479-488.

15. Fournié-Zaluski, M. C., Chaillet, P., Bouboutou, R., Coulaud, A., Chérot, P., Waksman, G., Costentin, J., and Roques, B. P. (1984) Analgesic effects of kelatorphan, a new highly potent inhibitor of multiple enkephalin degrading enzymes. Eur. J. Pharmacol. 102, 525-528.

16. Noble, F., Soleilhac, J. M., Soroca-Lucas, E., Turcaud, S., Fournié-Zaluski, M. C., and Roques, B. P. (1992) Inhibition of the enkephalin-metabolizing enzymes by the first systemically active mixed inhibitor prodrug RB 101 induces potent analgesic responses in mice and rats. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 261, 181-190.

17. Daugé, V., Mauborgne, A., Cesselin, F., Fournié-Zaluski, M. C., and Roques, B. P. (1996) The dual peptidase inhibitor RB 101 induces a long lasting increase in the extracellular level of Met-enkephalin in the nucleus accumbens of freely moving rats. J. Neurochem. 67, 1301-1308.

18. Coudoré-Civiale, M. A., Meen, M., Fournié-Zaluski, M. C., Boucher, M., Roques, B. P., and Eschalier, A. (2001) Enhancement of the effects of a complete inhibitor of enkephalin-catabo-lizing enzymes, RB 101, by a cholecystokinin-B receptor antagonist in diabetic rats. Br. J. Pharmacol. 133, 179-185.

19. Chen, H., Noble, F., Roques, B. P., and Fournié-Zaluski, M. C. (2001) Long lasting antinociceptive properties of enkephalin degrading enzyme (NEP and APN) inhibitor prodrugs. J. Med. Chem. 44, 3523-3530.

20. Delay-Goyet, P., Zajac, J. M., and Roques, B. P. (1989) Effects of repeated treatment with halo-peridol on rat striatal neutral endopeptidase EC, and on <x and □ opioid binding sites: comparison with chronic morphine and chronic kelatorphan. Neurosci. Lett. 103, 197-202.

21. Boudinot, E., Morin-Surun, M. P., Foutz, A. S., Fournié-Zaluski, M. C., Roques, B. P., and Denavit-Saubié, M. (2001) Effects of the potent analgesic enkephalin-catabolizing enzyme inhibitors RB 101 and kelatorphan on respiration. Pain 90, 7-13.

22. Noble, F., Coric, P., Fournié-Zaluski, M. C., and Roques, B. P. (1992) Lack of physical dependence in mice after repeated systemic administration of the mixed inhibitor prodrug of enkephalin-degrading enzymes, RB 101. Eur. J. Pharmacol. 223, 91-96.

23. Hutcheson, D. M., Subhan, F., Pache, D. M., Maldonado, R., Fournié-Zaluski, M. C., Roques, B. P., and Sewell, R. D. E. (2000) Analgesic doses of the enkephalin degrading enzyme inhibtor RB 120 do not have discriminative stimulus properties. Eur. J. Pharmacol. 401, 197-204.

24. Ruiz-Gayo, M., Baamonde, A., Turcaud, S., Fournié-Zaluski, M. C., and Roques, B. P. (1992) in vivo occupation of mouse brain opioid receptors by endogenous enkephalins: blockade of enkephalin degrading enzymes by RB 101 inhibits [3H]diprenorphine binding. Brain Res. 571, 306-312.

25. Aghajanian, G. K. (1978) Tolerance of locus coeruleus neurons to morphine and suppression of withdrawal response by clonidine. Nature (Lond.) 276, 186-188.

26. Duman, R. S., Tallman, J. F., and Nestler, E. J. (1988) Acute and chronic opiate-regulation of adenylate cyclase in brain: specific effects in locus coeruleus. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 246, 1033-1039.

27. Maldonado, R., Stinus, L., Gold, L., and Koob, G. F. (1992) Role of different brain structures in the expression of the physical morphine withdrawal syndrome. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 261, 669-677.

28. Williams, J. T., Christie, M. J., North, R. A., and Roques, B. P. (1987) Potentiation of enkephalin action by peptidase inhibitors in rat locus coeruleus. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 243, 397-401.

29. Noble, F. and Roques, B. P. (1995) Assessment of endogenous enkephalins efficacy in the hot plate test in mice: comparative study with morphine. Neurosci. Lett. 185, 75-78.

30. Abbadie, C., Honoré, P., Fournié-Zaluski, M. C., Roques, B. P., and Besson, J. M. (1994) Effects of opioids and non opioids on c-Fos-like immunoreactivity induced in rat lumbar spinal cord neurons by noxious heat stimulation. Eur. J. Pharmacol. 258, 215-227.

31. Tolle, T. R., Schadrack, J., Castro-Lopes, J., Evan, G., Roques, B. P., and Zieglgansberger, W. (1994) Effects of kelatorphan and morphine before and after noxious stimulation on immediate-early gene expression in rat spinal cord neurons. Pain 56, 103-112.

32. Honoré, P., Buritova, J., Fournié-Zaluski, M. C., Roques, B. P., and Besson, J. M. (1997) Antinociceptive effects of RB 101, a complete inhibitor of enkephalin-catabolizing enzymes, are enhanced by a CCK-B receptor antagonist as revealed by noxiously-evoked spinal c-fos expression in the rat. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 281, 208-217.

33. le Guen, S., Noble, F., Fournié-Zaluski, M. C., Roques, B. P., Besson, J. M., and Buritova, J. (2002) RB101(S), a dual inhibitor of enkephalinases, does not induce antinociceptive tolerance, or cross-tolerance with morphine: a c-Fos study at the spinal cord level. Eur. J. Pharmacol. 441, 141-150.

34. Nestler, E. J. and Aghajanian, G. K. (1997) Molecular and cellular basis of addiction. Science 278, 58-63.

35. Whistler, J. L., Chuang, H. H., Chu, P., Jan, L. Y., and von Zastrow, M. (1999) Functional dissociation of mu opioid receptor signaling and endocytosis: implications for the biology of opiate tolerance and addiction. Neuron 23, 737-746.

36. Di Chiara, G. (1999) Drug addiction as dopamine-dependent associative learning disorder. Eur. J. Pharmacol. 375, 13-30.

37. Daugé, V., Kalivas, P. W., Duffy, T., and Roques, B. P. (1992) Effect of inhibiting enkephalin catabolism in the VTA on motor activity and extracellular dopamine. Brain Res. 599, 209-214.

38. Dourmap, N., Michael-Titus, A., and Costentin, J. (1990) Acetorphan, an enkephalinase inhibitor, modulates dopaminergic transmission in rat olfactory tubercle, but not in the nucleus accumbens and striatum. Eur. J. Neurosci. 2, 783-787.

39. Heidbreder, C., Gewiss, M., Lallemand, S., Roques, B. P., and De Witte, P. (1992) Inhibition of enkephalin metabolism and activation of mu- or delta-opioid receptors elicit opposite effects on reward and motility in the ventral mesencephalon. Neuropharmacology 31, 293-298.

40. Mas Nieto, M., Wilson, J., Cupo, A., Roques, B. P., and Noble, F. (2002) Chronic morphine treatment modulates the extracellular levels of endogenous enkephalins in rat brain structures involved in opiate dependence. A microdialysis study. J. Neurosci. 22, 1034-1041.

41. Laschka, E., Teschemacher, H., Mehraein, P., and Herz, A. (1976) Sites of action of morphine involved in the development of physical dependence in rats. II. Morphine withdrawal precipitated by application of morphine antagonists into restricted parts of the ventricular system and by microinjection into various brain areas. Psychopharmacologia 46, 141-147.

42. Haffmans, J. and Dzoljic, M. R. (1987) Inhibition of enkephalinase activity attenuates nalox-one-precipitated withdrawal symptoms. Gen. Pharmacol. 18, 103-105.

43. Bhargava, H. N. (1977) Opiate-like action of methionine-enkephalin in inhibiting morphine abstinence syndrome. Eur. J. Pharmacol. 41, 81-84.

44. O'Brien, C. P. (1993) Opioid addiction, in Handbook of Pharmacology. Opioids II (Herz, A., Akil, H. and Simon, E. J., eds.), Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp. 803-823.

45. Ruiz, F., Fournie-Zaluski, M. C., Roques, B. P., and Maldonado, R. (1996) Similar decrease in spontaneous morphine abstinence by methadone and RB 101, an inhibitor of enkephalin catabolism. Br. J. Pharmacol. 119, 174-182.

46. Gibert-Rahola, J., Tejedor, P., Chover, A. J., Payana, M., Rodriguez, M. M., Leonsegui, I., Mellado, M., Mico, J. A., Maldonado, R., and Roques, B. P. (1990) RB 38B, a selective endopeptidase inhibitor, induced several of escape deficits cause by inescapable shocks pre-treatment in rats. Eur. J. Pharmacol. 183, 2317-2325.

47. Baamonde, A., Dauge, V., Ruiz-Gayo, M., Fulga, I. G., Turcaud, S., Fournie-Zaluski, M. C., and Roques, B. P. (1992) Antidepressant-type effects of endogenous enkephalins protected by systemic RB 101 are mediated by □ opioid and dopamine D1 receptor stimulation. Eur. J. Pharmacol. 216, 157-166.

48. Tejedor-Real, R., Mico, T. P., Maldonado, R., Roques, B. P., and Gibert-Rahola, J. (1995) Implication of endogenous opioid system in the learned helplessness model of depression. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. 52, 145-152.

49. Tejedor-Real, R., Mico, J. A., Maldonado, R., Roques, B. P., and Gibert-Rahola, J. (1993) Effect of a mixed (RB 38A) and selective (RB 38B) inhibitors of enkephalin-degrading enzymes on a model of depression in the rat. Biol. Psychiatr. 34, 100-107.

50. Smadja, C., Maldonado, R., Turcaud, S., Fournie-Zaluski, M. C., and Roques, B. P. (1995) Opposite role of CCK-A and CCK-B receptors in the modulation of endogenous enkephalins antidepressant-like effects. Psychopharmacology 128, 400-408.

51. Van Ree, J. M., Gerrits, M. A., and Vanderschuren, L. J. (1999) Opioids, reward and addiction: an encounter of biology, psychology, and medicine. Pharmacol. Rev. 51, 341-396.

52. Blake, M. J., Stein, E. A., and Czech, D. A. (1987) Drinking-induced alterations in reward pathways: an in vivo autoradiographic analysis. Brain Res. 413, 111-119.

53. Bertrand, E., Smadja, C., Mauborgne, A., Roques, B. P., and Dauge, V. (1997) Social interaction increases the extracellular levels of Met-enkephalin in the nucleus accumbens of control but not of chronic mild stressed rats. Neuroscience 80, 17-20.

54. Stein, L. and Belluzzi, J. D. (1979) Brain endorphins. possible role in reward and memory formation. Fed. Proc. 38, 2468-2472.

55. Goeders, N. E., Lane, J. D., and Smith, J. E. (1984) Self-administration of methionine en-kephalin into the nucleus accumbens. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. 20, 451-455.

56. Cappendijk, S. L. T., Hurd, Y. L., Nylander, I., van Ree, J. M., and Terenius, L. (1999) A heroin-, but not cocaine-expecting, self-administration state preferentially alters endogenous brain peptides. Eur. J. Pharmacol. 365, 175-182.

57. Gerrits, M., Wiegant, V.M., and van Ree, J. M. (1999) Endogenous opioids implicated in the dynamics of experimental drug addictions: an in vivo autoradiographic analysis. Neuroscience 89, 1219-1227.

58. Schultz, W., Dayan, P., and Montague, P. R. (1997) A neural substrate of prediction reward. Science 275, 1593-1599.

59. Garris, P. A., Kilpatrick, M., Bunin, M. A., Michael, D., Walker, Q. D., and Wightman, R. M. (1999) Dissociation of dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens from intracranial self-stimulation. Nature 398, 67-69.

60. Koob, G. F. (1992) Drugs of abuse: anatomy, pharmacology and function of reward pathways. Trends Pharmacol. Sci. 13, 177-184.

61. Spanagel, R., Herz, A., and Shippenberg, T. S. (1990) The effects of opioid peptides on dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens: an in vivo microdialysis study. J. Neurochem. 55, 1734-1740.

62. Yokoo, H., Yamada, S., Yoshida, M., Tanaka, T., Mizoguchi, K., Emoto, H., Koga, C., Ishii, H., Ishikawa, M., Kurasaki, N., Matsui, M., and Tanaka, M. (1994) Effect of opioid peptides on dopamine release from nucleus accumbens after repeated treatment with methamphetamine. Eur. J. Pharmacol. 256, 335-338.

63. Bozarth, M. A. (1987) neuroanatomical boundaries of the reward-relevant opiate-receptor field in the ventral tegmental area as mapped by the conditioned place preference method in rats. Brain Res. 414, 77-84.

64. Bals-Kubik, R., Ableitner, A., Herz, A., and Shippenberg, T. S. (1993) Neuroanatomical sites mediating the motivational effects of opioids as mapped by the conditioned place preference paradigm in rats. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 264, 489-495.

Part II

Psychostimulant Addiction

Was this article helpful?

0 0

Post a comment