Schematic Diagrams and Service Manuals

Electronics Repair Manuals

This website allows you to find the repair manuals for any electronic devices that you could think of. You will also be able to access schematic diagrams and other useful materials for repairing electronics. You will be able to find the documents that you need to repair your TV, your DVD and VCR players, your mobile phones and cameras, and computer monitors, plus more! You will even be able to find the diagrams and repair guides for very old devices, so you don't have to worry if you think that the guide is out of print; chances are that this site will have it! You don't need to freak out now when your TV breaks down; you will be able to find the guide to repair it and have it working again in no time! Most of the guides come in easily downloadable PDF files, so you can read them on your computer, phone, or tablet! Read more...

Electronics Repair Manuals Summary

Rating:

4.6 stars out of 11 votes

Contents: Service Manuals
Author: Dmitriy
Official Website: www.electronicsrepair.net
Price: $10.00

Access Now

My Electronics Repair Manuals Review

Highly Recommended

I started using this ebook straight away after buying it. This is a guide like no other; it is friendly, direct and full of proven practical tips to develop your skills.

As a whole, this e-book contains everything you need to know about this subject. I would recommend it as a guide for beginners as well as experts and everyone in between.

Mechanisms Of Ocular Drug Absorption

Topical delivery into the cul-de-sac is, by far, the most common route of ocular drug delivery. Adsorption from this site may be corneal or noncor-neal. A schematic diagram of the human eye is depicted in Figure 1. The so-called noncorneal route of absorption involves penetration across the sclera and conjunctiva into the intraocular tissues. This mechanism of absorption is usually nonproductive, as drug penetrating the surface of the eye beyond the corneal-scleral limbus is taken up by the local capillary beds and removed to the general circulation (2). This noncorneal absorption in general precludes entry into the aqueous humor.

Flavivirus life cycle

FIG. 1. (A) Schematic diagram of the flavivirus genome. The 2K polypeptide precedes the N-terminus of NS4B. CS, cyclization sequence 3'SL, 3' stem-loop. (B) Proposed 5'-3' end interactions in flavivirus RNA synthesis and translation. cHP, capsid coding region hairpin. FIG. 1. (A) Schematic diagram of the flavivirus genome. The 2K polypeptide precedes the N-terminus of NS4B. CS, cyclization sequence 3'SL, 3' stem-loop. (B) Proposed 5'-3' end interactions in flavivirus RNA synthesis and translation. cHP, capsid coding region hairpin.

The New Blood Vessels Induced by VEGFA

Figure 4 Schematic diagram summarizing the progression of the angiogenic response that follows introduction of a VEGF-A164-expressing adenoviral vector in vivo. Mother vessels develop and may evolve into glomeruloid bodies, vascular malformations, and daughter capillaries. Finally, as VEGF-A164 expression wanes, glomeruloid bodies undergo apopto-sis, whereas malformations achieve VEGF-A independence and persist indefinitely. Republished in modified form from Pettersson et al. (2000), Laboratory Investigation 80, 99 . (see color insert) Figure 4 Schematic diagram summarizing the progression of the angiogenic response that follows introduction of a VEGF-A164-expressing adenoviral vector in vivo. Mother vessels develop and may evolve into glomeruloid bodies, vascular malformations, and daughter capillaries. Finally, as VEGF-A164 expression wanes, glomeruloid bodies undergo apopto-sis, whereas malformations achieve VEGF-A independence and persist indefinitely. Republished in modified form...

Artificial Intelligence

People tend to underestimate the difficulty of achieving true machine intelligence. Once they've seen a few examples, they start drawing schematic diagrams of the mind, with boxes labeled perception and central executive. They then imagine how they would carry out these subtasks, and their introspections tell them it wouldn't be that hard. It doesn't take long for them to convince themselves that intelligence is a simple thing, just one step beyond Windows 98. The truth is that boxes are much easier to label than to fill in. After a while, you begin to suspect the boundaries between the boxes were misdrawn. Fifty years into the AI project, we've become much more humble. No one would presume any longer to draw a schematic for the mind. On the other hand, we have more concrete ideas for solving particular tasks.

Basic organisation of nerve cells

Arthropod Circulatory System

Figure 2.3 General arrangement of the nervous system and three basic categories of neuron, illustrated by schematic diagrams based on an arthropod. (a) Two segmental ganglia, showing lateral and connective nerves. (b) One ganglion with one sensory neuron, one motor neuron and an interneuron. Figure 2.3 General arrangement of the nervous system and three basic categories of neuron, illustrated by schematic diagrams based on an arthropod. (a) Two segmental ganglia, showing lateral and connective nerves. (b) One ganglion with one sensory neuron, one motor neuron and an interneuron.

Flow injection analysis

Flow injection analysis (FIA) represents a refinement of wet chemical methods. The basis of the technique is that the sample is injected into a continuously flowing stream of reagent. The sample reacts with the reagent and this reaction is measured with a detector. The range of detectors available is the same as that which is used in conjunction with HPLC (Ch. 12, p. 248) except that there is no chromatographic separation involved. Thus the technique is not as selective as chromatographic methods and its selectivity is dependent on the specificity of the reaction between the analyte and the reagent or the property used for detecting it. A simple schematic diagram of a flow injection analysis system is shown in Figure 3.19. The basic set up may be modified to include several manifolds that allow the introduction of the sample followed by additional reagents. The advantages of the technique are its cheapness and rapidity.

Measurement of optical rotation

Figure 2.7 shows a schematic diagram of a polarimeter. Light can be viewed as normally oscillating throughout 360 at 90 to its direction of travel. The light source is usually a sodium lamp, the polarising material can be a crystal of Iceland spar, a Nicol prism or a polymeric material such as polaroid. When circularly polarised light is passed through the polariser its oscillations are confined to one plane. In the absence of an optically active material the instrument is set so that no light is able to pass through the analyser. When the polarised light is passed through an optically active medium the plane in which the light is oscillating in becomes tilted and light is able to pass through the analyser. The angle of rotation can be measured by correcting for the tilt by rotating the analyser until light again does not pass through it. The angle that the second polariser has to be rotated through to, once again, prevent the passage of light...

Fermentation Processes

There are three types of fermentation processes existing batch, continuous and fed-batch processes. In the first case, all ingredients used in the bioreaction are fed to the processing vessel at the beginning of the operation and no addition and withdrawal of materials take place during the entire batch fermentation. In the second case, an open system is set up. Nutrient solution is added to the bioreactor continuously and an equivalent amount of converted nutrient solution with microorganisms is simultaneously taken out of the system. In the fed-batch fermentation, substrate is added according to a predetermined feeding profile as the fermentation progresses. In this book, we focus on the fed-batch operation mode, since it offers a great opportunity for process control when manipulating the feed rate profile affects the productivity and the yield of the desired product 2 . A picture of laboratory bench-scale fermentors is shown in Figure 1.1. The schematic diagram of the fed-batch...

Modeling Perception and Judgment

Order to draw images that look like actual images instead of schematic diagrams. Not everyone can do it well, but apparently anyone can grasp the idea. Look at two objects that are about the same size, two people, for instance, who are at different distances from your eye. Mentally draw two horizontal lines across the scene, one touching the top of the nearby object, the other the bottom. The faraway object can fit comfortably between the two lines with space to spare. If it doesn't, move your head up or down until it does, or find a different faraway object.

Inductively coupled plasma emission spectroscopy

If high enough temperatures can be reached, any element can be excited to a level where it will produce emission of radiation. Such high temperatures can be achieved by using plasma emission. A schematic diagram of an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) 'torch' is shown in Figure 6.6. Schematic diagram of an ICP torch.

Clinical Evaluation and Management

FIGURE 6 Schematic diagram showing the influence of the depth of bite on the distance (d) of vertical opening required in order to permit advancement of the mandible. The deeper the bite, that is, the greater the overlap between upper and lower incisors in occlusion (as per this example), the greater the amount of vertical opening required.

Myosin Light Chain Kinase MLCK

Myosin Light Chain

Figure 1 A schematic diagram of microvascular endothelial barrier structure. The barrier is formed by a layer of endothelial cells that connect to each other (e.g., cell A to cell B) through the junctional adhesive molecule VE-cadherin, which binds to another VE-cadherin in the junction and connects to actin cytoskeleton via a family of catenins (apy, and p120). This endothelial lining is tethered to the extracellular matrix through the binding of transendothelial receptor integrins (composed of a and p subunits) and a family of cytoskeleton-linking proteins including focal adhesion kinase (FAK). The integrity of this barrier structure is maintained by VE-cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesions and focal adhesion-supported cell-matrix attachment, whereas myosin light chain kinase (MLCK)-catalyzed myosin light chain (MLC) phosphorylation promotes cross-bridge movement between actin and myosin leading to cell contraction. A dynamic interaction among these structural elements controls the...

The Human Facilitative Diffusion Glucose Transporter Family

Highly schematic diagram illustrating the predicted secondary structure model of the glucose transporter molecule (GLUT 1) in the cell membrane (shaded). The putative membrane-spanning a-helices are shown as rectangles numbered 1-12 connected by chains (lines) of linked amino acids. (Adapted from Mueckler M, Caruso C, Baldwin SA, et al. Science 1985 229 941-5.)

Microscopy Techniques

The microscope uses lenses to magnify and focus the image of objects that are beyond the resolution of the human eye. These lenses may be optical, as in the case of the light microscope, or electromagnetic, as in the case of the electron microscope. The practical limit to the resolution of the image of a particular object is dependent on the wavelength of light or the energy of emitted electrons. Fig. 12 shows schematic diagrams of the complex optical microscope and the scanning electron microscope 86 .

Near Field Scanning Optical Microscopy

FIGURE 12.3 Schematic diagram of a near-field scanning optical microscope. The sample is mounted on a scanning stage, which is controlled by a XYZ-piezo scanner. The NSOM optical fiber probe is mounted on the removable Aurora-2 microscope head and positioned above the sample. A constant probe-sample distance is maintained at less than 10 nm using an electronic feedback system. The fluorescence is collected by a microscope objective through a filter set and imaged onto a PMT detector. FIGURE 12.3 Schematic diagram of a near-field scanning optical microscope. The sample is mounted on a scanning stage, which is controlled by a XYZ-piezo scanner. The NSOM optical fiber probe is mounted on the removable Aurora-2 microscope head and positioned above the sample. A constant probe-sample distance is maintained at less than 10 nm using an electronic feedback system. The fluorescence is collected by a microscope objective through a filter set and imaged onto a PMT detector.

Allosteric Modulation Of Ligandgated Channels

Allosteric model and theoretical prediction. (A) Schematic diagram illustrating the four-state allosteric model developed for the neuromuscular junction (79) with R, resting state, A, active state, I, inactive state and D, desensitized state. The only open state is A. (B) Simulation of the agonist dose-response curve. The fraction of the receptor in the open state was computed using Eq. 1 (see below) (75). Dashed lines represent the effects induced by the presence of a fixed concentration of positive or negative allosteric effector. (C) Simulation of the dose-response curve of an allosteric effector. Values were computed using Eq. 1, but with a fixed concentration of agonist and several effector concentrations. Simulation of the effects of a positive or negative effector are represented. Continuous lines illustrate the results obtained assuming two binding sites for the effector, and dashed lines are the results predicted for five sites. Fig. 5. Allosteric model and...

Hydroxydopamine and Ferritin

Schematic diagram illustrating the entrance of 6-OHDA into ferritin and reaching redox equilibrium with the iron core. This equilibrium is disturbed if a com-plexing agent is present. Figure 8. Schematic diagram illustrating the entrance of 6-OHDA into ferritin and reaching redox equilibrium with the iron core. This equilibrium is disturbed if a com-plexing agent is present.

Kinetic mechanism of reverse transcriptase

Figure 8.6 A schematic diagram for the polymerization pathway of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase. Kinetic measurements using an RNA template are indicated in parentheses all others are determined using a duplex DNA DNA primer template. E enzyme. Dn substrate DNA. Dn+1 product DNA with an elongated primer. dNTP the incoming nucleotide. E' the form of RT after a conformational change induced by DNA-binding. E'* the transitional state of RT after the second conformational change upon nucleotide binding. PPi pyrophosphate. (Data reported by Kati, W.M. et al., J. Biol.Chem, 267(36), 25988-25997, 1992.) Figure 8.6 A schematic diagram for the polymerization pathway of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase. Kinetic measurements using an RNA template are indicated in parentheses all others are determined using a duplex DNA DNA primer template. E enzyme. Dn substrate DNA. Dn+1 product DNA with an elongated primer. dNTP the incoming nucleotide. E' the form of RT after a conformational change induced by...

Surface Area Concentrations

The same measurement principle is used in the diffusion charger aerosol surface-area monitors that have recently become available. These instruments measure the attachment rate of positive unipolar ions to particles, from which the aerosol active surface area is inferred.32 A schematic diagram of the principle of a typical monitor is given in Figure 5.

Nanoparticle Size Distribution Measurement

Corona Particles Counter

3.5.1 Measuring Size Distribution using Particle Mobility Analysis. The most common instrument used for measuring size distributions of aerosols of nano-particles is the Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS). The SMPS is capable of measuring aerosol size distribution in terms of particle mobility diameter from approximately 3 nm up to around 800 nm, although multiple instruments typically need to be operated in parallel to span this range. A schematic diagram is given in Figure 6.

Management of Peripheral Nerve Injuries

Management Nerve Injuries

Schematic diagram of the three grades of injury and anatomical elements involved. The neurapraxic injury is due to the loss of a functional myelin sheath, while the axon and the surrounding connective tissue remain intact. The axonotmetic injury involves disruption of both the myelin sheath and the axon. The neurotmetic injury involves the myelin sheath, axon and connective tissue encompassing the nerve. Fig. 32.2. Schematic diagram of the three grades of injury and anatomical elements involved. The neurapraxic injury is due to the loss of a functional myelin sheath, while the axon and the surrounding connective tissue remain intact. The axonotmetic injury involves disruption of both the myelin sheath and the axon. The neurotmetic injury involves the myelin sheath, axon and connective tissue encompassing the nerve.

Ampar Endocytosis In

Ampar Glur2

Schematic Diagram Shows the Amino-Acid Sequence in Carboxyl Terminal (CT) of AMPAR GluR2 Subunit. Sequences conserved among GluR1-4 (conserved) and those involved in its interaction with Y-ethylmaleimide Sensitive Factor (NSF) or PSD-95 Discs Large Zona Occludens-1 domain-containing proteins (PDZ) are highlighted. Note that insulin-induced AMPAR endocytosis can be disrupted only in cells expressing mutants with the three tyrosine residues near the end of the GluR2 CT deleted. The amino acid sequence that covers these three tyrosine residues was used to construct the interference GluR23Y peptide. Figure 32.1. Schematic Diagram Shows the Amino-Acid Sequence in Carboxyl Terminal (CT) of AMPAR GluR2 Subunit. Sequences conserved among GluR1-4 (conserved) and those involved in its interaction with Y-ethylmaleimide Sensitive Factor (NSF) or PSD-95 Discs Large Zona Occludens-1 domain-containing proteins (PDZ) are highlighted. Note that insulin-induced AMPAR endocytosis can be...

Applications of Pcrldr and the Universal DNA Microarray

Dna Color Separation

Fig. 3. (Color Plate 9 following p. 18) Schematic diagram for the detection of multiple single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) using LDR PCR Universal Array. Multiplexed LDR is performed on multiple SNPs using allele-specific primers containing unique zip-code sequences and a 5' universal sequence (Un2) as well as locus-specific primers containing a different universal sequence (Un1) on their 3' ends. Only if there is perfect complementarity at the junction will the ligation product form, thus distinguishing different SNPs. Unligated products are destroyed with X exonuclease (5' 3') and exonuclease 1 (3' 5'). All remaining LDR products are coamplified simultaneously with universal PCR primers Un2 and Un1. In this illustration, Un2 is labeled with Cy5 on the 5' end, and Un1 may be phosphorylated on the 5' end, allowing for the option to convert PCR products to a single-stranded form with X exonucle-ase prior to hybridization. PCR products are hybridized to universal array containing...

Myelinated nerve fibres

Nerve Fibre Diagram

Schematic diagram of the structure of a vertebrate myelinated nerve fibre. The distance between neighbouring nodes is actually about 40 times greater relative to the fibre diameter than is shown here. Fig. 1.6. Schematic diagram of the structure of a vertebrate myelinated nerve fibre. The distance between neighbouring nodes is actually about 40 times greater relative to the fibre diameter than is shown here.

Analysis of regions of the 5 and 3 UTRs involved in DENV translation and RNA synthesis

Denv Utr Structure

Schematic diagrams of the targeted locations in the DENV 5'- and 3'-UTRs. (A) Locations of P-PMO target sequences in the DENV-2 5' UTR. Indicated by lines are target sequences for the DENV 5'SL P-PMO and the 5' AUG P-PMO. The predicted secondary structure of the DENV-2 5' UTR was determined using the mFold web server (Zuker 2003). (B) Locations of P-PMO target sequences in the DENV 3' UTR. Indicated by lines adjacent to the 3' UTR sequence are target sequences for the DENV 3' PKIIA, 3' PKIIB, 3'CS2 RCS2, 3'CS, and 3'SLT P-PMOs. The shaded regions indicate the interactions involved in forming the PKIIA and PKIIB pseudoknot secondary structures the shaded loop sequence is predicted to interact with the shaded region downstream. The secondary structures of the DENV-2 3' UTR are based on computer predicted secondary structures (Hahn et al 1987, Mohan & Padmanabhan 1991, Olsthoorn & Bol 2001, Proutski et al 1999, Shi et al 1996a) and chemical probing of the terminal 100...

Variations on a Theme

Nested Pcr

The use of multiplex LDR followed by PCR was initially developed to score chromosomal instability in tumors (see Subheading 1.4. above). A schematic diagram of multiplex LDR PCR Universal Array to determine DNA copy number or score SNPs is shown in Fig. 3. In this approach, the universal primer sequences are added to the 5' end of discriminating LDR primers and to the 3' end of common LDR primers. After ligase detection reaction, the excess unli-gated LDR primers and DNA templates can be digested using 5' 3' and 3' 5' exonucleases. The ligation products are protected from digestion, since blocking groups are added at both their 5' and 3' ends. This exonuclease digestion step reduces the potential of nonspecific hybridization and false-positive results on the universal array readout. The ligation products are simultaneously amplified with universal PCR primers. Only one of the universal PCR primers is fluo-rescently labeled to serve as the detection signal when these amplicons are...

Structure of the cell membrane

Electron Micrograph With Double Membrane

Schematic diagram of the structure of a cell membrane. Two layers of phospholipid molecules face one another with their fatty acid chains forming a continuous hydrocarbon layer (HC) and their polar head groups (Pol) in the aqueous phase. The selective pathways for ion transport are provided by proteins extending across the membrane, which have a central hydrophobic section with non-polar side chains (NP), and hydrophilic portions projecting on either side. Fig. 3.1. Schematic diagram of the structure of a cell membrane. Two layers of phospholipid molecules face one another with their fatty acid chains forming a continuous hydrocarbon layer (HC) and their polar head groups (Pol) in the aqueous phase. The selective pathways for ion transport are provided by proteins extending across the membrane, which have a central hydrophobic section with non-polar side chains (NP), and hydrophilic portions projecting on either side.

Mode Of Action Of Types Of Dietary Fats Against Colon Cancer

FIGURE 23.2 Mechanisms by which n-3 PUFAs inhibit colon carcinogenesis. The schematic diagram illustrates potential cellular and molecular events mediated by n-3 PUFAs against colon carcinogenesis. The cascade of molecular events modulated by n-3 PUFAs includes proinflammatory genes such as COX-2 and iNOS, activated ras, specific PKC isoforms, and differentiating factors including RXR that modulate cell differentiation and apoptosis. High dietary n-3 PUFAs exert antitumor activity by interfering with the post-translational modification and membrane localization of ras-p21 through modulation of farnesyl protein transferase, thus inhibiting ras-p21 function. FIGURE 23.2 Mechanisms by which n-3 PUFAs inhibit colon carcinogenesis. The schematic diagram illustrates potential cellular and molecular events mediated by n-3 PUFAs against colon carcinogenesis. The cascade of molecular events modulated by n-3 PUFAs includes proinflammatory genes such as COX-2 and iNOS, activated ras, specific...

The Scope Of The Synapse Formation Problem

Synaptic Formation

Schematic Diagram of the Innervation Patterns of a Pyramidal Cell in the CA1 Region of the Hippocampus by 12 Types of GABAergic Interneurons. The main laminar-specific glutamatergic inputs are indicated on the left. The somata and dendrites of interneurons innervating pyramidal cells (green) are shown in orange, those innervating mainly or exclusively other interneurons are shown in lilac (see Colorplate 1). The main termination zones of GABAergic synapses are shown by trapeziform symbols. The proposed names of neurons, some of them abbreviated, are under each schematic cell and a minimal list of molecular cell markers is given, which in combination with the axonal patterns help the recognition and characterization of each class. Note that one molecular cell marker may be expressed by several distinct cell types. The number of interneurons shown is not exhaustive or complete. Note the association of the output synapses of different sets of cell types with the perisomatic...

A biogenic amine that functions as a Neurotransmitter in the brain and as a regulator of physiological activity in

Fig. 26 A schematic diagram of the long-range central dopaminergic systems in the mammalian brain. The nigrostriatal pathway (ns) projects from the substantia nigra (SN) to the basal ganglia (BG). The mesolimbic pathway (ml) projects from the mid-brain ventral tegmental area to some so-called '*limbic structures', e.g. the nucleus accumbens (NAC). The mesocortical pathway (mc) projects from the ventral tegmental area to the *cerebral cortex, e.g. frontal cortex. (Adapted from Stahl 1996.)

Mechanism of membrane fusion

Mechanism Fusion

Schematic diagrams (compare with Fig. 1 C, D) showing the structural changes in the E protein during the fusion process. (A) The dimeric E protein in its native state at the surface of the mature virion. (B) Monomeric E interacting with a target membrane via its fusion peptide loop. Possible hinge movements at the junction between domains II and I are indicated by dotted lines. (C) Formation of the final post-fusion conformation trough relocation of domain III and interactions of the stem-anchor region with domain II, leading to the juxtaposition of the fusion peptide loops and the membrane anchors in the fused membrane. FIG. 2. Schematic diagrams (compare with Fig. 1 C, D) showing the structural changes in the E protein during the fusion process. (A) The dimeric E protein in its native state at the surface of the mature virion. (B) Monomeric E interacting with a target membrane via its fusion peptide loop. Possible hinge movements at the junction between domains II and I are...

A biogenic amine that functions as a Neurotransmitter and a hormone

Fig. 50 A schematic diagram of the central noradrenergic projections from the locus ceruleus (LC) in the mammalian brain. Only selected targets are marked. CTX, cerebral cortex HIP, hippocampus OB, olfactory bulb TEC, tectum TH, thalamus. (Adapted from Cooper et al. 1996.) Fig. 50 A schematic diagram of the central noradrenergic projections from the locus ceruleus (LC) in the mammalian brain. Only selected targets are marked. CTX, cerebral cortex HIP, hippocampus OB, olfactory bulb TEC, tectum TH, thalamus. (Adapted from Cooper et al. 1996.)

In Vitro Differentiation Protocols

Schematic diagram of differentiation of mouse ES cells into neuronal, pancreatic, hepatic and cardiac muscle cells in vitro. The protocols are based on the formation of embryoid bodies (EBs) by the hanging drop technique, followed by early and terminal differentiation induction after EB plating. (A) Undifferentiated ES cells cultivated 2 d on mitomycin-inactivated mouse embryonic fibroblasts as feeder layer. (B-E) Morphology of ES-derived neurons (B), pancreatic P-like cells (C), hepato-cyte-like cells (D), and beating cardiomyocytes (E, left). Beating frequency is measured by the LUCIA HEART imaging system (E, right). Diff. med., Differentiation medium, Bar, 20 m. Fig. 1. Schematic diagram of differentiation of mouse ES cells into neuronal, pancreatic, hepatic and cardiac muscle cells in vitro. The protocols are based on the formation of embryoid bodies (EBs) by the hanging drop technique, followed by early and terminal differentiation induction after EB plating. (A)...

Cooperative Interaction Between iNos And Ho1

Nadph Heme

Figure 5 Schematic diagram showing the pathway leading to iNOS and HO-1 induction. Upon induction of HO-1, further synthesis of iNOS is inhibited due to lack of heme available to be incorporated into the newly synthesized apo-iNOS protein and further production of NO by iNOS is inhibited by the CO generated from the degraded heme. Figure 5 Schematic diagram showing the pathway leading to iNOS and HO-1 induction. Upon induction of HO-1, further synthesis of iNOS is inhibited due to lack of heme available to be incorporated into the newly synthesized apo-iNOS protein and further production of NO by iNOS is inhibited by the CO generated from the degraded heme.

Evidence for Capillary Arteriolar Communication

Figure 1 Schematic diagram of experimental arrangement for distal stimulation of capillaries. In this diagram, capillaries are oriented horizontally, run in parallel to each other, and are fed by arteriole A. Arrows indicate direction of blood flow while dots represent physical junction between microvessels. During the experiment, a minute amount of vasoactive agent is placed on capillary by means of a glass micropipette, 300 to 500 mm away from the arteriole. Responses are measured in terms of changes in arteriolar diameter or changes in red blood cell flow in the stimulated capillary (or any capillary supplied by the terminal end of the arteriole). Local damage of the stimulated capillary at midpoint (i.e., indicated by dotted circle), or pretreatment of the midpoint by gap junction uncoupler, inhibits the arteriolar blood flow response to the distal capillary stimulus 3, 4 . (Adapted from Ref. 3 .) Figure 1 Schematic diagram of experimental arrangement for distal stimulation of...

The toxic change of reactive microglia suggests two step activation of microglia in PD

Microglia Isolation

Schematic diagram showing a hypothesis of two-step activation of microglia. We isolated neuroprotective and neurotoxic subsets of microglia, and also neuroprotective and neurotoxic clones from mouse brain. In addition, Sawada and coworkers (Vilhardt et al., 2002) found in a cell culture experiment that a neuroprotective microglial clone converted from the protective to toxic cells upon transduction of the HIV-1 Nef protein with activation of NADPH oxidase. Based on these results, we propose a hypothesis of two step activation of microglia. Activated microglia by the first stimuli may initially act for neuroprotection by producing protective neurotrophins, cytokines, and antioxidants, but by the second stimuli and unknown regulators may change to be neurotoxic by producing ROS and MPO. This toxic change of activated microglia may promote the progress Fig. 2. Schematic diagram showing a hypothesis of two-step activation of microglia. We isolated neuroprotective and neurotoxic...

Applications 2631 Spatial Distribution

Figure 26.3 Schematic diagram illustrating the basis for digital analysis of fluorescence images. (A) Epifluorescence micrograph of cellular aggregates of GFP-labeled S. enterica on a cilantro leaf. Each GFP-labeled S. enterica single cell or aggregate in the image can be identified by thresholding on the bright pixels originating from the GFP fluorescence, which is of higher intensity than the background pixels originating from the leaf surface (inset). This thresholding yields objects (B) for which a variety of parameters, such as total number of pixels or mean pixel intensity, can be automatically measured with the image analysis software. Because of the highly heterogeneous spatial distribution of bacteria on plants, as well as variations between plants, this type of analysis requires the acquisition of a large number of images from random fields of view of multiple plant samples in order to yield unbiased data. figure 26.3 Schematic diagram illustrating the basis for digital...

Biological Activities

Figure 3 Schematic Diagram of VEGFR-2 Signaling. Ligand binding to the extracellular domain induces dimerization, autophosphorylation of specific intracellular tyrosine residues, and a series of downstream phosphorylations and other events that lead to endothelial cell survival, migration, proliferation, and increased permeability. For further details, see Cross et al. (2003), Trends in Biochemical Sciences 28, 488, from which this diagram is republished with permission. (see color insert)

In various regions of the brain in PD

Schematic diagram showing the dual potential roles of microglia in PD. In parkinsonian brains, activated microglia are observed not only in the substantia nigra (SN) and caudate-putamen (C-P) but also in other brain regions such as pallidum and cingulate cortex. Activated microglia associated with neurons or neurites without degeneration may be non-toxic and act for neuroprotection, whereas activated microglia associated with degenerated neurons and neurites may be neurotoxic and promote neurodegeneration. TE transenthorhinal cortex CC Fig. 1. Schematic diagram showing the dual potential roles of microglia in PD. In parkinsonian brains, activated microglia are observed not only in the substantia nigra (SN) and caudate-putamen (C-P) but also in other brain regions such as pallidum and cingulate cortex. Activated microglia associated with neurons or neurites without degeneration may be non-toxic and act for neuroprotection, whereas activated microglia associated with degenerated...

Neurotransmitter at central synapses and at the vertebrate neuromuscular junction

Neuromuscular Junction Central Synapse

Fig. 1 A schematic diagram of the central cholinergic projections in the mammalian brain. There are two major projectional networks from the basal forebrain, innervating among others the *cerebral cortex (CTX), *hippocampus (HIP) and *amygdala (AM) and from the penducolopontine and laterodorsal tegmental nuclei (marked in the figure as PPT), innervating among others the thalamus (TH) and tectum (TEC). OB, olfactory bulb. Local cholinergic circuits are not shown. (Adapted from Cooper et al. 1996.) Fig. 1 A schematic diagram of the central cholinergic projections in the mammalian brain. There are two major projectional networks from the basal forebrain, innervating among others the *cerebral cortex (CTX), *hippocampus (HIP) and *amygdala (AM) and from the penducolopontine and laterodorsal tegmental nuclei (marked in the figure as PPT), innervating among others the thalamus (TH) and tectum (TEC). OB, olfactory bulb. Local cholinergic circuits are not shown. (Adapted from Cooper et al....

Video Image

Schematic diagram of a typical Optical Coherence Tomography system for ophthalmic examination. The instrument for ophthalmic examination is similar to a slit-lamp biomicroscope or fundus camera, OC images are processed by computer and displayed as they are acquired on a high resolution color monitor. The portion of the retina or anterior eye that is being tomographicslly imaged is viewed on a video monitor Images are stored for the diagnostic record via computer.

Viewing Objective

Figure 1-12 shows a schematic diagram of the optical imaging system for tomographic imaging of the anterior segment. The basic diagnostic instrument is similar in design to a slit-lamp biomicroscope. In this case, the microscope images structures in the anterior segment directly and the operator can view them through an ocular or with a video camera. The OCT measurement beam is coupled along the viewing path of the device using a partially reflective mirror and the focal point of the OCT probe beam is coincident with the image plane of the biomicroscope. The position of the OCT optical beam is controlled by a scanning mirror or pair of mirrors which aims the beam position the coronal plane (x,y directions). The second general type of ophthalmic imaging which can be performed using OCT is imaging the posterior segment of the eye or the retina. In this application, the instrument operates analogously to a fundus camera. Figure 1-13 shows a schematic diagram of the imaging optics which...

Fabrication

Fig. 4. (A) Schematic diagram for a hot embossing machine. (B) MicroChannel structures created on PMMA by hot embossing. Reprinted with permission from Fan and Harrison (1994). Fig. 4. (A) Schematic diagram for a hot embossing machine. (B) MicroChannel structures created on PMMA by hot embossing. Reprinted with permission from Fan and Harrison (1994). Fig. 5. (A) Schematic diagram for an injection molding machine, reprinted from Becker and G rtner (2000) with permission. (B) Microgearwheel structures manufactured by injection molding, reprinted from Piotter et al. (1997) with permission. Fig. 5. (A) Schematic diagram for an injection molding machine, reprinted from Becker and G rtner (2000) with permission. (B) Microgearwheel structures manufactured by injection molding, reprinted from Piotter et al. (1997) with permission.

Nadh

Schematic diagram of signal amplification using a dual-enzyme bio-optrode. Pyruvate is detected using lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and lactate oxidase (LDO), which are co-immobilized on a fiber optic tip. Pyruvate concentration is determined by measuring NADH fluorescence. Pyruvate and NADH diffuse from the bulk solution into the enzyme layer, LDH catalyzes the formation of lactate and NAD+ during the reduction of pyruvate. LDO then catalyzes the regeneration of pyruvate causing additional consumption of NADH by the LDH-catalyzed reaction. Thus, the signal obtained using a dual-enzyme system is higher then when a single enzyme is used (Zhang et al., 1997). Reprinted with permission from Elsevier Science.

SNARE Proteins

Fig. 4 Schematic diagram of the SNARE protein Munc18 cycle. Docked synaptic vesicles (top left) may be attached to the active zone via the Rab RIM interaction (see Figure 3) but contain SNARE proteins that have not yet formed a complex with each other (synaptobrevin VAMP on synaptic vesicles and SNAP-25 and syntaxin-1 on the plasma membrane note that syntaxin-1 is thought to be complexed to the SM-protein Munc18-1). Priming is envisioned to occur in two steps that involve the successive assembly of SNARE-complexes (priming I and II). During priming, Munc18-1 is thought to be continuously associated with syntaxin-1, shifting from a heterodimeric binding mode in which it was attached to syntaxin-1 alone to a heteromultimeric binding mode in which it is attached to the entire SNARE complex (top right). After priming, Ca2+ triggers fusion-pore opening to release the neurotransmitters by binding to synaptotagmin (see Figure 5). After fusion-pore opening, SNAPs (no relation to SNAP-25) and...

Multianalyte sensing

Multianalyte bio-optrode for oligonucleotide detection, (a) Schematic diagram of bio-optrode setup. Individual optical fibers, each with a specific immobilized oligonucleotide probe sequence are bundled together. The fiber's distal end is incubated with the sample and the signals obtained at the proximal end are measured using a CCD detector, (b) Fluorescence images acquired after incubating the multianalyte bio-optrode in solutions containing different target sequences. Image F show the bio-optrode response to the presence of three different targets in the sample (Ferguson, et al 1996). Reprinted with permission from Nature Biotech. Figure 14. Multianalyte bio-optrode for oligonucleotide detection, (a) Schematic diagram of bio-optrode setup. Individual optical fibers, each with a specific immobilized oligonucleotide probe sequence are bundled together. The fiber's distal end is incubated with the sample and the signals obtained at the proximal end are measured using a CCD...

Ccaatg

Lambda Cro protein is shown bound to DNA (orange). A) The two HTH recognition helices (red) of Cro sit in the major groove of the DNA according to the model of Brian Matthews. B) Schematic diagram of the Cro dimer. C) Space-filling model of Cro dimer bound to bent B-DNA. The sugar-phosphate backbone of DNA is orange and the bases are yellow. From Introduction to Protein Structure by Brandon & Tooze, 2nd ed., 1999. Garland Publishing, Inc., New York and London.

Figure

Fatty acid transport and fatty acid-induced nuclear regulation of transport protein genes. Schematic diagram of a fatty acid (FA) entering a mammalian cell through a putative transmembrane carrier, binding to the intracellular fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs) and moving to the nucleus. The mechanism(s) by which fatty acid enters the nucleus is unknown at this time. Upon entering the nucleus, the FA binds to a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) that dimerizes with holo-retinioc acid X receptor (RXR). This heterodimer recognizes and binds to a peroxisome proliferator-responsive element (PPRE) on target DNA, thereby effecting transcription of a downstream coding region. In particular, the expression of membrane fatty acid transporters and FABPs as well as many genes involved in both mitochondiral (M) fatty acid metabolism and peroxisomal (P) fatty acid oxidation are mediated via PPRE elements.

T 15t 17t 19t 20t

Figure 6.2. (a) Schematic diagram of the SBE reaction. (b) Typical example of a multiplexed SBE reaction detected by electrophoresis. Twenty autosomal SNPs were typed based on the nucleotide lengths of the SBE primers and the fluorescent label of the added dideoxynucleotide. The tested individual was heterozygous in four positions (SNP numbers 9, 10, 12 and 17) and homozygous in 16 positions

The safety margin

Figure 1 shows a schematic diagram of the structure of the neuromuscular junction (DreyerJ9.82). Vesicles containing quanta of acetylcholine molecules are Fig. 1 Schematic diagram of the neuromuscular junction showing active zones on the presynaptic membrane and synaptic vesicles located opposite the junctional folds of the postsynaptic membrane. Acetylcholine receptors are located in high density at the crests of the junctional folds. (Adapted with permission from Dreyer

Hyponatremia

Brain Adaptation to Hypoosmolality Schematic diagram of brain volume adaptation to hyponatremia. Under normal conditions brain osmolality and extracellular fluid (ECF) osmolality are in equilibrium (top panel for simplicity the predominant intracellular solutes are depicted as K+ and organic osmolytes, and the extracellular solute as Na+). Following the induction of ECF hypoosmolality, water moves into the brain in response to osmotic gradients producing brain edema (middle panel, 1, dotted lines). However, in response to the induced swelling the brain rapidly loses both extracellular and intracellular solutes (middle panel, 2). As water losses accompany the losses of brain solute, the expanded brain volume then decreases back toward normal (middle panel, 3). If hypoosmolality is sustained, brain volume eventually normalizes completely and the brain becomes fully adapted to the ECF hyponatremia (bottom panel). Reproduced with permission from (1).

Sensory Systems

Loss of partial or total aspects of the visual field can be understood in terms of damage to the retinal pathways, including their targets in the lateral geniculate nucleus and visual cortex. The schematic diagram shown in Fig. 10 depicts the kinds of field deficits that occur following lesions of different aspects of the visual pathway. Key (A) optic nerve lesion producing total blindness in the left eye (B) lesion that disrupts the right retinal nasal fibers that project from the base of the left optic nerve, producing right upper quadrantanopia and left scotoma (C) lesion of optic chiasm, producing bitemporal hemianopsia (D) unilateral (left) optic tract lesion, producing a right homonymous hemianopsia (E) interruption of left visual radiations that pass ventrally through the temporal lobe to the lower bank of the visual cortex (i.e., the loop of Meyer), producing an upper right quadrantanopia (F) interruption of left visual radiations that pass more dorsally through the occipital...

Reactor setup

The schematic diagram of the experimental set-up is shown in Figure 4.6. Fed-batch cultivation was carried out in a BioFlo 3000 bench-top fermentor (New Brunswick Scientific Co., INC., USA). The vessel of the bioreactor has a total volume of 3L with a working volume of 2.5L. The input to the fermentor is the feed flow rate, which is controlled by a peristaltic pump. The measured outputs are the concentration of biomass and DO. The fo rmer is Fig. 4.6. Schematic diagram of fed-batch fermentation setup. Fig. 4.6. Schematic diagram of fed-batch fermentation setup.

Amygdala

Amygdaloid Nucleus

Fig. 3 The amygdaloid complex maintains extensive interconnections with multiple brain areas, including the hypothalamus, thalamus (MD, mediodorsal), *hippocampal formation, and temporal and frontal *cor-tex. This schematic diagram depicts the amygdala as a single area for simplicity, but in reality it is a collection of about a dozen main nuclei and cortical areas that interconnect differentially with targets over widely distributed brain areas, and subserve diverse functions, among them emotional behaviour and learning. (Adapted from Brodal 1998.) Fig. 3 The amygdaloid complex maintains extensive interconnections with multiple brain areas, including the hypothalamus, thalamus (MD, mediodorsal), *hippocampal formation, and temporal and frontal *cor-tex. This schematic diagram depicts the amygdala as a single area for simplicity, but in reality it is a collection of about a dozen main nuclei and cortical areas that interconnect differentially with targets over widely distributed brain...

Matrix

FIGURE 1 Schematic diagram of the mitochondrial ETC. Note the site of complex I inhibition by rotenone and MPP+, electron leakage and ROS production. Abbreviations ADP, adenosine diphosphate ATP, adenosine triphosphate ETC, electron transport chain FAD, flavin adenine dinucleotide FADH2, flavin adenine dinucleotide MPP, 1-methyl-4-phenyl-2,3-dihydropyridinium ion NADH, nico-tinamide dinucleotide ROS, reactive oxygen species TCA, trycarboxylic acid. FIGURE 1 Schematic diagram of the mitochondrial ETC. Note the site of complex I inhibition by rotenone and MPP+, electron leakage and ROS production. Abbreviations ADP, adenosine diphosphate ATP, adenosine triphosphate ETC, electron transport chain FAD, flavin adenine dinucleotide FADH2, flavin adenine dinucleotide MPP, 1-methyl-4-phenyl-2,3-dihydropyridinium ion NADH, nico-tinamide dinucleotide ROS, reactive oxygen species TCA, trycarboxylic acid.

Analysis of Cultures

Schematic diagram of a three-dimensional collagen gel culture. Side view, showing explants positioned at the interface between the collagen bilayer. The explants should lie in the center of the gel and rest on the bottom collagen cushion. The bottom layer of collagen is flat. The top layer of collagen overlays the bottom cushion precisely. Medium is added just to cover the gel. Fig. 1. Schematic diagram of a three-dimensional collagen gel culture. Side view, showing explants positioned at the interface between the collagen bilayer. The explants should lie in the center of the gel and rest on the bottom collagen cushion. The bottom layer of collagen is flat. The top layer of collagen overlays the bottom cushion precisely. Medium is added just to cover the gel.

Alpha A Fowler III

Endothelium Sepsis Picture

Figure 1 Schematic diagram of LPS proapoptotic signaling in endothelial cells. After LPS binding to TLR-4, EC signaling pathways leading to nuclear translocation of NFkB and apoptosis are activated. These pathways share some of the same signaling molecules, including MyD88, IRAK-1, and TRAF-6. A redundant signaling pathway involving MAL TIRAP similarly mediates both NFkB activation and apoptosis. Downstream of TRAF-6, the signaling pathways that activate these two processes diverge. The molecules that link the upstream NFkB signaling molecules to the recruitment and activation of caspases remains unknown. LBP, LPS-binding protein NIK, NFkB-inducing kinase IKK, IkB kinase sCD14, soluble CD 14 FADD, Fas-associated death domain FLIP, FADD-like interleukin converting enzyme-like inhibitor protein TRAF-6, TNF receptor-associated factor-6 IRAK-1 2, IL-1 receptor-associated kinase-1 MyD88, myeloid differentiation factor 88. (see color insert) Figure 1 Schematic diagram of LPS proapoptotic...

Cascade Impactors

The principle on which inertial impactors operate is based on the aerodynamic behavior of aerosol particles. Fig. 6 shows a schematic diagram of particle collection by an inertial collection device. When the direction of a gas flow changes, the suspended particles continue to move in the original direction of Figure 6 Schematic diagram of the method of collection of aerosol particles by an impactor. Solid arrows show direction of movement of airflow. Large particles impact on the collection surface, while small particles pass around it. Figure 6 Schematic diagram of the method of collection of aerosol particles by an impactor. Solid arrows show direction of movement of airflow. Large particles impact on the collection surface, while small particles pass around it. A cascade impactor that seems to be among the most commonly used in the pharmaceutical industry is the Delron 10 . This is a Batelle-type instrument, named after the place of development. There are two models, the Delron...

Liquid Drain

Figure 7 Schematic diagram of the Babington nebulizer. Figure 8 shows a schematic diagram of an MDI. These devices are most frequently used to deliver suspension aerosols, consisting of solid particles of drug suspended in a liquid propellant. The original particle size of the suspended powder is very important because this dictates the smallest particle size generated from the device. The powder is prepared by milling to the appropriate size. Micronized powders prepared in this fashion are approximately 3-5 mm in size. The powder is suspended in the propellant by means of a surfactant, for example, oleic acid. Because of the size of the particles, the suspension is not colloidal and, therefore, is stable for only minutes. This means that it is important to shake the suspension to redisperse the particles before use. The propellant, in which the particles are suspended, in either a CFC blend or HFA ethanol mixture. These have high vapor pressure and must be packed under pressure, at...

Download Instructions for Electronics Repair Manuals

Free version of Electronics Repair Manuals can not be found on the internet. And you can safely download your risk free copy of Electronics Repair Manuals from the special discount link below.

Download Now