Hell Really Exists
Dover demon 141 Sources Jerome Clark, The Dover Humanoid, Fate 31 (March 1978) 50-55 Joseph A. Citro, Passing Strange (New York Houghton Mifflin, 1997), pp. 136-147 Martin Kottmeyer, Demon Moose, The Anomalist 6 (1998) 104-110 Loren Coleman, Mysterious America, rev. ed. (New York Paraview Press, 2001), pp. 42-61.
The fourfold classification suggests the question as to which of the four senses of Aristotelian 'causation' was more influential in medicine. The view that mental illness was 'caused' by demons means something different depending on whether cause is understood as formal, material, or efficient. The received view is that it followed sense (3), i.e. that physicians believed that there were real objects called demons who could cause madness. (6) Thus understood, this aetiological view can easily be derided, but it is possible that physicians at that time (and all knew their Aristotle well) had in mind sense (2), i.e. that 'evil' was the 'formal meaning' of madness.
The podophyllotoxins are extracts of the mayapple or mandrake plant, Podophyllum peltatum, long known in folk medicine. Two glycosidic derivates, etoposide (VP-16) and teniposide (VM-26), are currently in clinical use. The main mechanism of cytotoxicity was initially ascribed to tubulin-binding properties, at sites distinct from vinca alkaloids that result in inhibition of microtubule assembly and consequent S-G2 phase block and cell death. However, new evidence demonstrates that the antimicrotubular effects occur only at concentrations severalfold higher that were not reached with clinically relevant doses. Moreover, the epipodophyllotoxins produce both single- and double-strand DNA breaks that were distinct from the cellular changes seen with antimicrotubule agents.105 Epipodophyllotoxins, and anthracyclines as well, bind to topoisomerase II, stabilize the enzyme-DNA complex (termed cleavable or cleavage complex), and inhibit the rean-nealing of the cleaved DNA, thus resulting in...
We then used the fluorescent tracer Lucifer Yellow (LY) to examine the ability of cells aggregated on CU to communicate via gap junctions. Cells seeded on CU were incubated for 90 min at 37 C and LY was microinjected into one cell of an aggregate for 1 min. We observed a progressive diffusion of the fluorescent dye toward the neighboring cells reflecting the functionality of gap junctions 19 (Figure 3.3). We observed, by RIA measurement, that Swiss 3T3 cells adhering for 45 min to AN69 in serum-free conditions increase their content of cAMP and become aggregated. These morphological and biochemical changes are prevented by adding 10 FBS to the medium while cells aggregated on CU remain unaffected (Figure 3.4). Furthermore, we demonstrated that the catalytic activity of adenylyl cyclase is activated by the attachment of cells to CU and that MDL 12330 A a specific inhibitor of adenylyl cyclase, prevents cell aggregation and abolishes Cx 43 channel clustering on CU.
Ultrasonography is the most commonly performed screening examination for abdominal and pelvic problems in pediatric patients. Unlike many other imaging studies, sedation is not needed for ultrasonography and there is no exposure to ionizing radiation. The location of the primary tumor, the presence of vascular encasement, and metastasis to the liver may be detected by ultrasonography. Calcifications are demon- strated as focal areas of increased echogenicity, sometimes associated with acoustical shadowing. The aorta and inferior vena cava are usually anteriorly displaced by the retroperitoneal mass. Tumor invasion of the liver or kidney can be assessed by visualization of planes between the mass and the liver or kidney. Doppler may be used to demonstrate flow in vessels compressed by tumor however, evaluation of the full extent of the disease is not possible with ultrasonography.
Gap junctional channels demonstrate unique electrical and biochemical properties depending on the constituent Cx isotypes. In turn, the distinct functional properties of each Cx protein arise from specific amino acid sequences found in the intracellular loop and carboxy terminus. The formation of heterotypic and heteromeric channels, which express a mixture of more than one Cx, has been shown to confer channel properties that are distinctly different from those of homotypic channels formed from each of the individual Cxs. For example, the ability to permit the passage of particular second messengers has been shown to vary with the Cx composition of gap junctions. Thus, it is important to determine the specific Cx composition of the gap junctional channels formed in any particular artery or arteriole, since this is likely to have a significant impact on vascular function. muscular arteries, however, demonstrated that expression of Cx43 was absent from the muscle layers of the latter...
Essential for any conception of the cell is that it is no static system. It is dynamic. It is energy-cycles, suites of oxidation and reduction, concatenated ferment-actions. It is like a magic hive the walls of whose chambered spongework are shifting veils of ordered molecules, and rend and renew as operations rise and cease. A world of surfaces and streams. We seem to watch battalions of specific catalysts, like Maxwell's demons, lined up, each waiting, stop-watch in hand, for its moment to play the part assigned to it. Yet each step is understandable chemistry.
In the theory of mind an intelligent supervisor in the brain that reads information and commands action
Assigned neuroanatomical coordinates. Other thinkers were much less enthusiastic Leibniz, for example, opposed those searching for explanations in 'little demons or imps which can without ado perform whatever is wanted' (Leibniz 1704). More than two centuries later, Homunculi found their way into the debates on behaviourism in psychology. Homunculi-based explanations of behaviour were inherently problematic for behaviourism. On the one hand, homunculi could relieve psychology from the need to explain inner mental processes on the other, themselves they were postulated inner mental structures. 'The function of the inner man is to provide an explanation which will not be explained in turn', so Skinner (1971),' Explanation stops with him'. But he also added 'Science does not dehumanize man it de-homunculizes him' (ibid.).
Perpetually overwhelmed by the conflict between the will and better decisions, the bedeviled variant's existential experience is that of being caught between a rock and hard place. Painfully aware of their inner impulses, many engage in a form of self-torture, an act of punitive resolution that symbolically undoes that which bedevils them. In this context, the obsessions and compulsions that emerge signify a futile attempt to control that which is illogical, irrational, or even abstract about themselves and their desires. Unfortunately, this is not all that such attempts signify. Generally, the more extreme the obsessions and compulsions, the more the individual's routine coping skills are failing. Their inner ambivalence is the inability to confront what is upsetting to them, and outward behaviors such as compulsions are an outlet for their contradictory feelings. As individuals become more severely disordered, they may see themselves as driven by ego-alien forces, perhaps demons....
Prior to the mid-nineteenth century, epilepsy was viewed as a form of demonic possession and was commonly treated with exorcism. In the mid-1800s, the discovery of the antiepileptic properties of bromides revolutionized the treatment of epilepsy. Since then, barbiturates, phenytoin, benzodiazepines, carbamazepine, valproate, and several other antiepileptic drugs have been introduced. Psychiatric patients, like patients with epilepsy, were also thought to be possessed by demons. Interestingly, many of the same medications used to treat epilepsy are now being used to treat some psychiatric disorders, particularly bipolar disorder. At present, we have a limited understanding of the mechanisms of action of the antiepileptic drugs in seizure disorders, but our understanding of their actions in psychiatric disorders is even less clear.
A variation on the same theme associates narcissism with a need for power (Joubert, 1998). In Christian history, for example, a pathological level of pride is painted as the original source of all evil. Sin enters the world because Satan is caught up in his own fantasies of omnipotence and brilliance, while refusing to humble himself before God. In a slightly different twist, some Eastern religions regard attachment to the self as part of the normal psychopathology of everyday life that must be dispelled before the person can achieve enlightenment. Though the exact nature of their beliefs is different, these traditions seem to agree that a preoccupation with the self is a formidable barrier to growth. Again, there are parallels in our cases. You can imagine, for example, Leonardo arguing with the chief of psychiatry about a diagnosis and refusing to back down. The same can be said for Gerald, our long-suffering Einstein, who has already run afoul of superiors and subordinates alike....
That their fluorescence signals can be clearly distinguished (for example, different populations of dye-labeled axons or different immunolabels). It is important to compare the specifications of the excitation and emission filters with the absorption and emission spectra of the fluorochromes chosen. Other factors that should be taken into account are the brightness and photostability of a particular fluorochrome. Some fluorescent dyes survive fixation better than others. For example, for intracellular dye injection, the highly fluorescent 5,6-carboxyfluorescein cannot be fixed whereas the relatively less bright lucifer yellow can be cross-linked by paraformaldehyde fixation.
We have utilized Lucifer yellow as an indicator of acute biophysical membrane failure after TBI and SCI. Lucifer yellow is normally membraneimpermeable therefore, cellular presence of this molecule can be used to detect plasma membrane compromise. In these experiments, Lucifer yellow was injected intrathecally 3 h prior to brain or spinal cord contusion, and animals were sacrificed 10min after injury (a schematic of the injury devices are illustrated in Fig. 3). Histological evidence demonstrated heterogeneous uptake of the permeability marker in various anatomical locations (as shown in Fig. 4), indicating that the distribution of mechanical loading in CNS tissue is complex and not well understood. Although we have focused on acute membrane damage as an indicator of the load distribution throughout the brain and spinal cord, others have explored membrane compromise as an initiator of downstream pathological events. Cell membrane damage can
Figure 8.3 Interneuron 125, which is involved in local reflex bending movements in the leech. (a) A diagram of a ganglion in which the neuron was stained by intracellular injection of the fluorescent stain lucifer yellow. (b) Amplitudes of EPSPs in a left 125 caused by stimulating the four different P neurons (dorsal and ventral left and right) of the same segment. Each bar indicates, from three experiments, the mean amplitude and standard error of the EPSP evoked by stimulating a particular P neuron. (c) Amplitudes of postsynaptic potentials evoked by spikes in interneuron 125 in the excitor (ex.) and inhibitor (inh.) motor neurons of dorsal and ventral longitudinal muscles. Upward-directed bars indicate EPSPs and downward-directed bars indicate IPSPs. Means and standard errors are indicated, as in (b). (a redrawn after Lockery & Kristan, 1990b.) Figure 8.3 Interneuron 125, which is involved in local reflex bending movements in the leech. (a) A diagram of a ganglion in which the...
Lenore was stable until her twin's suicide at age 35. Maureen had been in and out of psychiatric institutions for much of her adult life, leaving Lenore feeling painful survivor's guilt, which overwhelmed her when her twin died. Her profound grief was experienced as blinding rage evolving into a psychosis, which was transient and resolved quickly. She was hospitalized and received shock treatments, which were a major psychiatric treatment at that time. A lengthy stay in the hospital, and perhaps the treatments, appeared to quiet her demons and to contain her. When she returned home, she appeared thinner, weary, and noticeably less animated.
In the evaluation of dementia, the majority of the work has focused on AD. As a result, preliminary application to the study of PDD has embarked from this foundation. The extensive hippocampal pathology in AD prompted examination of this structure in PDD compared to PD, AD, vascular dementia, and matched controls.151 While the volume of the hippocampus (measured by volumetric protocols) was diminished in all groups, this measure did not distinguish the etiology of cognitive decline. This observation was recently replicated by Camicioli et al.,152 who also observed significant hippocampal atrophy in nondemented PD. No change was observed in parahip-pocampal gyrus or frontal, temporal, or parietooccipital cortex. Evaluation of the subcortical structures and the posterior fossa has revealed no difference between PD and matched controls.153 Striatal and brain stem volume was found to be diminished in PSP and multiple system atrophy.153 A comparison of AD to DLB and vascular dementia did...
PP'ossible explanations (1) Much Latin American bat-demon myt ho logy can be t raced to t he Common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus), which feeds ent ir ely on t he blood of ver t ebr at es especially cat t le and horses but somet imes on humans. It silent ly appr o aches an animal, lands on it, makes a tiny cut in t he skin, and laps up the blood flow. It runs and hops on all fours as well as flies.
Furtive shadow on the wall in a New Delhi suburb becomes a menacing Monkey Man an out-of-place moose is transformed into an extraterrestrial-like Dover Demon a distant house cat provides the inspiration for an Alien Big c at report an odd combination of unrelated sights, sounds, and smells creates the illusion of a mythical ChUPACABRAS with fiery red eyes. Aiien Big Cat Big Grey Man Black Dog brenin Llwyd Cannibal Giant Chu-pacabras Daisy Dog Dover Demon Flying Humanoid Hairy Biped Little People Lizard Man Monkey Man Phantom Wolf Werewolf
Labral lesions are the most common hip pathology, present in 61 of athletes undergoing arthroscopy.5 Various studies have demonstrated that articular damage is present in association with more than half of all labral tears.15-18 Often it is the extent of articular pathology that is the limiting factor as far as success of arthroscopic intervention. MRIs and MRAs are best at identifying labral lesions but poor at demonstrating accompanying articular pathology (Figures 13.5, 13.6, 13.7). Thus, the uncertain presence of articular damage is often the wild card in predicting the outcome of arthroscopy and should temper the surgeon's enthusiasm for predicting uniform success in the presence of imaging evidence of labral damage. false-negative interpretation, which is reduced to 8 with MRA. However, with MRA, the false-positive interpretation doubles from 10 to 20 , with overinterpretation of labral lesions being the principal source of false-positive results.19 Lecouvet et al. have also...
Etymology Maori (Austronesian) word of uncertain meaning. Possibly wai ( water, or one who ) + to ( dive ) + reke ( bone spur or knob ), meaning spurred one who sinks into the water. Or wai ( water ) + toreke ( left behind ), thus meaning disappearing under the water. However, the root waito- often has a connotation of the spirit world, producing the meaning, disappearing demon. Another possibility is the one with wrinkles, if reke is taken to mean wrinkled.
(2) Newspaper writers theorized that the attacks were made by a ghost, a bear, or a devil because a letter had been received claiming that a rich man had wagered he could visit London suburbs disguised as one of these creatures. (5) A fictional story in which Springheel Jack is a nobleman who is cheated out of his inheritance and becomes a highwayman to steal from the unscrupulous rich first appeared in 1875 as a forty-eight-part serial by penny-dreadful writer Charlton Lea. This literary Springheel Jack was demonic was dressed in a crimson suit and had batlike wings, horns, talons, cloven hooves, and sulphurous breath. His leaps were accomplished by the use of steel rods and springs. Much of the legend seems to derive from this narrative, which was picked up by other sensational writers.
Etymology Tibetan Indo-Aryan hybrid word meaning powerful demon, according to Gordon Creighton. Rakshasa are Hindu demons from the Ramayana in some old epics, they were the pre-Aryan inhabitants of India. Ratkshi is a Nepali alcoholic drink made from rice or millet. Rag tse is Tibetan for stone. Bonpo was a priest of the religion of Tibet prior to Buddhism, often in charge of exorcisms. Variant name Ragshi. Physical description Height, 4-6 feet. Behavior Herbivorous. Fast runner. Habitat Dense forests. Distribution Nepal.
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