Dopamine and Serotonin Receptors

Clozapine is a potent drug in the treatment of schizophrenia; however, not all patients benefit from treatment, and some patients react adversely to therapy while others fail to respond adequately. Several studies have reported an association between clozapine response and polymorphisms in the dopamine receptor 3 (D3) gene (60-62), dopamine receptor 4 (D4) gene (63,64), and in the serotonin receptor 2A (65,66) and 5A genes (67). In a recent study, Arranz et al. (68) screened for the combination of upto 19 polymorphisms that predicted clinical response to clozapine in schizophrenic patients with high accuracy. These 19 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were located in eight receptor genes and one transporter gene, including the a2A-adrenoceptor, dopamine D3 receptor, 5-HT2A, 5-HT2C, 5-HT3A, 5-HT5A, histamine H1 receptor, histamine H2 receptor, and the serotonin transporter gene. A combination of six polymorphisms, including the 5-HT2A 102T/C, His452Tyr, 5-HT2C-330GT/-244CT, Cys23Ser, 5-HTTLPR, H2-1018G/A, predicted clinical response with 76.86% accuracy (/ = 35.8; P =0.0001) with sensitivity of 95.89 ( + 0.04), suggesting that these polymorphisms could be used to identify patients who are most likely to show a satisfactory improvement with treatment.

Cure Your Yeast Infection For Good

Cure Your Yeast Infection For Good

The term vaginitis is one that is applied to any inflammation or infection of the vagina, and there are many different conditions that are categorized together under this ‘broad’ heading, including bacterial vaginosis, trichomoniasis and non-infectious vaginitis.

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