Clinical Applications Of Pharmacogenetics And Pharmacogenomics

The previous sections described a number of genetic factors influencing treatment response identified through genetic association studies. However, these individual findings have had no immediate application in clinical practice, because they do not provide a sufficiently high degree of prediction as they account for a relatively small fraction of response variability. This fact may be a reflection of the multitarget profile of most drugs. Antipsychotics interact with several neurotransmitter systems to a different extent, and alterations in all/ most of the genes controlling drug-target interactions may contribute to response variability. Pharmacogenetic and pharmacogenomic research has attempted the combination of genetic information in relevant genes for the prediction of antipsychotic response with promising results. Pharmacogenetic research has already produced some useful applications, particularly in the detection of side effects related to metabolic alterations. Pharmacogenomic research is relatively new in the field, and it is expected to produce clinically useful results in the next decade. The current applications of pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics include individual detection of PMs, selection of population groups for clinical trials, and novel target detection for drug development.

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