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The Social Security operations manual contains over 2700 different rules. However, Jim Blair has broken this down into an easy to follow formula that will take just minutes. This guide will talk you through things in a way that is clear and easily understandable, and breaks down all your options whether you are married, divorced, single, or widowed; everyone is covered here. The Social Security Administration as an organization is notoriously unhelpful to claimants, because the huge number of claimants it faces everyday means they don't have time to go into as much detail with each individual claim as you need. With the Social Security Retirement Guide, you will be able to make a clear, informed decision about this important process, as otherwise you could miss out on hundreds of dollars a month. You will be shown how to proceed through the entire process, from deciding when to make your application to receiving your first payment. There's no more waiting in line for hours only to find you haven't been given a straight answer- this process is quick and can be done from the comfort of your own home, at your leisure.

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Pinel and the birth of psychiatry as a branch of medicine

Pinel, who was born in 1745, had studied medicine, translated Cullen's books into French, and published scientific papers on various subjects. He acted as a physician in a small Parisian 'madhouse', the Pension Belhomme, in which wealthy lunatics were confined at the request of their families. At that time most of the Parisian insane were confined for a few weeks in the general hospital the Hotel Dieu. If their state did not rapidly improve, they were considered as incurable and send to Bicetre or the Salpetriere, built a century before, which also received other social deviants such as beggars and prostitutes. Pinel, who was known by his politically influential friends for his progressive scientific ideas, was appointed physician to Bicetre. The division for the insane was under the direction of an overseer (surveillant), Pussin, who had already introduced humanitarian reforms in the care of the patients. Pinel's merit was to approve and systematically to develop Pussin's empirical...

In Memoriam Jacob J Pruzansky PhD June 20 1921April 5 2001

Jack Pruzansky served as an author in five editions of Allergic Diseases. He spent many hours mentoring fellows in the Allergy-Immunology Division during his 35-year tenure at Northwestern University. After his retirement, he still functioned as a consultant and provided scientific expertise to the division. Jack was an expert on in vitro basophil histamine release and discovered how dilute hydrochloric acid would allow for removal of IgE from basophils. This discovery allowed him to study passive transfer experimentally and led to studies of histamine releasing factors. His intellect and advice helped fellows and faculty stay out of dark alleys as he would say.

Box 313 Casestudy Brazil

Most elderly people live with their spouses or extended family (only 15 live alone and fewer than 1 live in institutions). Families with one or more elderly members are relatively advantaged because of the means-tested non-contributory pension benefits for older Brazilians, introduced in the 1990s. However, the informal support that family caregivers can offer to their relations in more need is still difficult because of impoverishment.

Box 315 Casestudy Nigeria

Usually record-keeping, accountability and political will are poor, so that many elderly people who retire do not receive their benefits. Recently the Federal Government has introduced a contributory pension scheme, but in the past elderly people found it difficult to learn about and access their entitlements. Elderly Nigerians are among the poorest groups in the country.

Democracy and the Role of Protocols and Formularies

Today, protocols are a popular tool to secure quality . Quality of outcome could be translated as an optimized, predictable and more uniform outcome of a specified intervention. Protocols are designed within a group of professionals and subsequently communicated to the professional domain and to society. Society means in our culture the people , the politicians, the decision-makers. The responsibility of the professionals is to present their choices in a clear and unambiguous way. The responsibility of the politicians is to oversee the total field of requests for public interference in individual lives and to communicate their view to the electorate. The responsibility of the individual is to recognize his often ambiguous role in society. Today a healthy, prosperous individual might simultaneously be a shareholder of a pharmaceutical company, a subscriber to a health-insurance company, a member of a pension fund which invests in the tobacco industry and possibly a patient at the same...

The Cost of Care Is Increasing Rapidly at an Unsustainable Rate

Cancer care is second only to cardiovascular disease in terms of yearly cost to the healthcare system expenditures for diagnosis, supportive care, and treatment are rising and pose an increasingly severe economic burden on society. Estimates from 2001 reveal that the United States spends 56 billion yearly on cancer treatment additionally, 16 billion yearly is attributed to indirect morbidity costs and 85 billion for indirect mortality costs. To put this into perspective, medical care costs now are 15 and education now less than 5 of U.S. Gross National Product (GNP) (New York Times, January 9, 2004), whereas 30 years ago both medical care and education had 6 of the GNP2 additionally, these costs have risen over the past several years at an annual rate of 10 or higher. Medicare cancer drug costs tripled from 1.2 billion in 1998 to 3.8 billion in 2002 (Association of Community Cancer Centers Website, accessed August 20, 2003). Precise figures for private insurance, Medicaid, and direct...

Pure Cultures of Phototrophic Sulfur Bacteria at Last

I am personally glad that I was an eyewitness and coworker during these fruitful years of Pfennig in Gottingen. After that I spent most of my research life until retirement working - together with many of my students - to elucidate the sulfur metabolism of purple (including Ectothiorhodospira) and green phototrophic sulfur bacteria even by taking detours or side interests such as assimilatory pathways in yeasts, sulfur and non-sulfur purple bacteria as well as dissimilatory sulfur metabolism in the anaerobic Thiobacillus denitrificans and in sulfate reducers like Desulfovibrio and extreme thermophilic Archaeoglobus and Pyrobaculum species. Often the choice of another model organism helped to overcome a dead end in our research on phototrophic sulfur bacteria. In those years the progresses in sulfur metabolism research - no matter whether on oxidative or reductive pathways - were due to rapid developments in enzymology, protein chemistry and radioactive labeling techniques besides more...

Histrionic Personality Disorder

Retirement may be a particular source of distress for the older histrionic type especially if the person used the work environment as the stage on which to perform. In cases in which the histrionic person married and maintained the relationship, widowhood may be notably damaging because the individual will have great difficulties cultivating new relationships and sources of support. Increased dependency (due to physical or cognitive problems) is likely to also result in significant prob

Work Family and Community Participation

Most people with MS have marketable skills and work experience. Many continue to work after their diagnosis and keep their jobs for a long time, often until the normal age of retirement. Some people with MS, however, have serious difficulties keeping their jobs or are advised by their doctors or employers that quitting work would be the best choice. In fact, within 10 to 15 years after diagnosis, only 25 percent of people with MS still work. This is disturbing because many people with MS do not experience chronic debilitating symptoms. And many who leave work regret doing so, especially when decades of unnecessary unemployment follow.

Main Regulations 21 CFR Part 11 13511 Introduction

Following the increased use of computer and electronic data management systems in the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industry, the US FDA issued a specific regulation in 1997 on these topics (21 CFR Part 11 FDA 1997). 21 CFR Part 11 applies to all industry segments regulated by the FDA, including Good Laboratory, Good Clinical and Good Manufacturing Practices, and has hence been enforced by regulatory centers such as CDER and CBER. The main topic of 21 CFR Part 11 addresses the requirements that electronic records and electronic signatures have to fulfill to become legally equivalent to paper-based records and handwritten signatures. Electronic records are defined by FDA as 'any combination of text, graphics, data, audio, pictorial or other information represented in digital form that is created, modified, maintained, archived, retrieved or distributed by a computer system'. Data that are deleted after the system is switched off, for instance those stored in the random access memory...

Description and Misdiagnosis

Delayed Sleep Phase Syndrome (DSPS). In DSPS, sleep onset and wake times occur far later than normal (e.g. sleep 0300 to 1100 hours), there is no difficulty in maintaining sleep once initiated and sleep times are regular from day to day. Enforcing conventional sleep-wake times fails to advance sleep phase. DSPS is easily misdi-agnosed as sleep onset insomnia, hence the extent of the disorder is likely to be more widespread than acknowledged at present. Furthermore, evening-types (owls) who prefer late night retirement may represent a milder form of DSPS and has been termed sub-DSPS (9). Since patients may have to rise in the morning at conventional times in order to go to work, a sleep debt accumulates as the week progresses.

The practice of transport

Transport teams must be adequately clothed and equipped. Weather conditions fluctuate and environmental conditions may in part be influenced by the mode of transportation. Coveralls for flying, as well as helmets with headsets for communication and protection, are used. In the United Kingdom, the National Health Service pension and accident provisions are inadequate and usually hospitals must take out specific insurance policies. North American transport systems are usually self-insured or insured through their provider.

Collaboration with Th Dobzhansky

Early in the 1930s, Mayr had given up his Lamarckian in favor of Darwinian selectionist views (as had independently E. Stresemann and B. Rensch in Berlin) convinced by the publications of geneticists and long conversations with James Chapin, explorer of the Congo rainforest and his colleague at the AMNH (p. 120). The first volume of Chapin's Birds of the Belgian Congo (1932) was the best work on the ecology, behavior, and biogeography of tropical birds of that time. F. M. Chapman, the chairman of the Bird Department, still believed in direct environmental influences and in saltation, as did Mayr's colleagues R. C. Murphy, J. T. Zimmer, G. K. Noble, and others. After Chapman's retirement in 1942, Ernst Mayr became the dominant force within the Department of Ornithology showing new theoretical and conceptual ways to explain the development of species and other evolutionary processes (Lanyon 1995).

Demography of the older population

In the United Kingdom, approximately 17 per cent of the population are over retirement age however, this is higher in some regions than others. It is particularly high along south and west coasts, in East Anglia, and in seaside and rural areas of natural beauty, where it can be 33 per cent or higher. However, within rural areas, the older population tends to be concentrated in small towns and larger villages, and may be lower than average in the most isolated areas. The overall proportion of older people, however, is higher in rural areas in most countries, and this is particularly marked in the developing world where the young migrate to the cities for work.

Lifestyles and social networks

The experience of old age is determined by the life lived and as a result the lifestyles of older people demonstrate a wide range of heterogeneity. Most people over retirement age live relatively active engaged lives, but the nature of their lives continues to be affected by demographic variables such as age, gender, marital status, social class, income, parenthood or childlessness, migration history, education, personality, family, and community. The post-retirement population potentially includes two generations. Variation is more marked than homogeneity. Retirement migration is a feature in many countries. Migrants in Western Europe tend to be middle or skilled working class and moves are usually to smaller communities on the coast or in attractive rural areas. In Eastern Europe moves are more likely to be towards children from the countryside to the city. In the United States most retirement migration is to the sun belt Florida, Arizona, New Mexico, and California. Recent trends...

Implications for mental health care

This chapter summarizes sociological theories and findings relating to ageing and older people. In general, like all age groups, those people who have passed retirement age continue to lead the lives they led before they reached that age. Withdrawal from participation in the work force or the so-called productive age groups may affect the way in which they are perceived but makes little change to their family and community roles and relationships. They are still the parents, siblings, grandparents, friends, and neighbours that they were before. However, the inevitability of eventual decline and death seems that much closer. It is not surprising, therefore, to find that their primary goal is to continue as before and to maintain their independence for as long as they can.

Obsessive Compulsive Personality Disorder

Another potential stressor is retirement. Older individuals with Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder are likely to cope poorly with retirement, especially where they have had occupational success and have come to define their identity largely through their work role and accompanying prestige and status. Although they are resistant to and uncomfortable with change, retirement brings about a host of new routines that they must painstakingly develop. This often leads obsessive-compulsive older adults to experience a great deal of distress. It is hard for them to enjoy the fruits of their labors and relax. To do so would be perceived as a waste of time.

The Self Defeating Masochistic Personality

Theresa is the older of two girls raised by their mother. Her father abandoned the family before they were old enough to remember him. Her mother was loving, but so busy working two jobs that the girls saw her only a few minutes each day. Nevertheless, the family was stable until, as an adolescent, Theresa developed recurrent infections that required repeated hospitalizations. Because her mother was the sole source of income, the family was usually broke trying to pay the bills. Now, her mother has no money saved for retirement, and neither child has a college fund. Theresa accepts full responsibility and feels unbearably guilty. My mom basically worked her life away trying to keep me healthy, she says through the tears.

Sadistic Personality Disorder Dsmiiir Appendix A

Criterion A1 (has used physical cruelty or violence for the purpose of establishing dominance in a relationship) is likely problematic due to decreased physical strength and stamina associated with normal aging. However, emotional cruelty seems to know no age limits, so this particular symptom may be acted out in proxy fashion especially among frail sadistics. Additionally, a common pattern with aging is to have fewer social relationships. Along with reduced interpersonal contacts due to retirement, these contextual factors may restrict the sample of safe or helpless targets for aging sadistic individuals. The sadistic criteria that involve dominance relationships (parent-child, boss-worker) may indeed be no longer applicable throughout the life span.

Depressive Personality Disorder Dsmivtr Appendix B

Retirement may also exacerbate Depressive Personality Disorder traits, as there are often many naturally positive aspects to one's job or occupation. Those fortunate to have had rewarding job positions and occupations may have had their depressive traits kept at bay by raises, attitudes of healthy coworkers, and other benefits from jobs with self-actualizing potential. With the free time and loss of prestige that often accompany retirement, depressive tendencies may intensify.

The Evolutionary Neurodevelopmental Perspective

. . . became depressed and developed deep feelings of defeat and humiliation accompanied by fantasies in which his political opponents were gloating with satisfaction over his defeat. . . He went into retirement, but gradually devaluated the areas of political science in which he had been an expert. . . a narcissistic depreciation of that in which he was no longer triumphant, which brought about a general loss of interest in professional, cultural and intellectual matters. (p. 311)

The fear of being scooped

Scoopophobia (sometimes manifested as priorityma-nia) is a common occupational hazard in contemporary science. The term stems from 'scoop', which literally means to gather or collect swiftly, and metaphorically, to top or outmanoeuvre a competitor in acquiring and publishing an important news story (it all originated in schope, Old Dutch for 'bucket'). Scoopophobia is a very focused phobia the victim does not fear scoops in general, only those of the competitors. The first signs could become apparent already in Graduate School ('early onset'), but more commonly in postdoctoral training or immediately afterwards ('late onset', but not senile). It is a chronic malady, with a pre-tenure acute phase and subsequent recurrent exacerbations, that could linger well into postretirement. Among the presenting symptoms manic preoccupation with one's own findings, delusions that include an amazing belief that these findings are indeed the most important in the world ever, and frequent, mostly...

The Case of Louis Obsessive Compulsive Personality Disorder

Two major changes in Louis's life contributed to the expression of psychopathology and increased distress. One was his retirement from the law practice, and the other was the development of hypertension and cardiovascular disease leading to his discontinuing community activities. Together, these effectively created a double retirement. Subsequently, Louis manifested several problematic behaviors. He developed sleep difficulties and began to grossly overeat, gaining considerable weight, which added to his medical morbidity. Now at home for most of the day, he became watchful of Marie and sharply critical of her every move, lashing out at her for not doing things the right way or for being sloppy. On one occasion, he swept the contents of a kitchen cabinet onto the floor in a pique of anger after discovering that Marie had not securely replaced the cap on a peanut butter jar. Typically, Louis's temper outbursts were followed by his verbal self-flagellation and compulsive overeating. I...

Letter 133 To Henry Fawcett

I am very sorry to hear about the British Museum it would be hopeless to contend against any one supported by Owen. Perhaps another chance might occur before very long. How would it be to speak to Owen as soon as your own mind is made up From what I have heard, since talking to you, I fear the strongest personal interest with a Minister is requisite for a pension.

Recurrent depression Recurrent major depression

After a single episode of major depression around 85 per cent of patients experience recurrent episodes. (17) While the first episode of major depression is often provoked by a negative life event such as loss of job, retirement, marital separation. or divorce, subsequent episodes are often unprecipitated (positive life events can also provoke depression). Depressive episodes typically increase in frequency and duration as they return. (.18) This phenomenon has been explained by 'kindling', a process in which repeated stimulation causes an escalating response.(19) Usually, the intervals between episodes of unipolar depression are symptom free, but some patients experience dysthymia between episodes. Such cases have been called 'double depression'. (29

Box 312 The 1066 Dementia Research Group key findings

People with dementia were heavy users of health services, and associated direct costs were high. Compensatory financial support was negligible few older people in developing countries receive government or occupational pensions, and virtually none of the people with dementia in the 10 66 study received disability pensions.

The third and fourth ages

All cultures make a distinction between those old people who are still active and can look after themselves and those who are frail, ill, and need care. As a result of increased life expectancy and the compression of morbidity into the last few years of life, older people, particularly in the richer countries, now enjoy a longer period of active life after retirement. As a result, within a short period of time we have witnessed a shift towards an image of retirement as a period to be looked forward to and planned for. This period has become known as the third age, and that associated with frailty as the fourth age. (1.0) In countries or areas without developed pension provision, it is only the fourth age which is defined as 'old'. In these societies, most older people continue to work as long as they are able. Old age may be defined in terms of no longer being able to carry one's own water. In contrast, in the developed world a statutory retirement age may be enforced, restricting...

Dependent Personality Disorder

Older persons with Dependent Personality Disorder are also likely to actively seek out and overly rely on other supportive individuals and services, easily becoming burdensome. Facing retirement, the older adult with Dependent Personality Disorder may welcome the occurrence and the concomitant freedom from those responsibilities. In contrast to the other personality disorders we have already discussed, increased dependency is not particularly challenging for the aging dependent type. In fact, quite the contrary, the dependent type may enjoy such opportunities for greater dependence in later life, relishing increased opportunities to receive the care and nur-turance of others. A key distinction to make is between older adults who are dependent on others due to unfortunate life circumstances (e.g., illness) and those whose dependence is excessive to the current situation.

Possibilities for prevention

The establishment and maintenance of a regular routine, both pre-bedtime and in terms of sleep schedule, seem to be important preventive factors. Such chronobehavioural functioning can be at risk of disruption by, for example, jet lag, shift work, weekend patterns differing from weekday, adolescent lifestyle, and retirement. Adherence to, and or reinstatement of, an adaptive pattern seems crucial.

Inside and Outside Feeders

Outside feeders need a great deal of feedback, direction, and confirmation from others (the outside). This is suggested as being consistent with Histrionic, Narcissistic, Borderline, Antisocial, and Dependent Personality Disorders. When they are denied or limited in this source of sustenance, the maladaptive expressions of the personality disorder can be expected to become worse. This is often the response to frequently occurring events in old age, such as retirement and the need to move into assisted housing, among other changes, which reduce the amount of feedback they can receive.

Five clinical stages degrees of disability

Continuing relationship of central nervous system infection and Parkinsonism, autonomic nervous system failure with special attention to orthostatic hypotension, and every aspect of the drug management of Parkinson's Disease. His experience and expertise (in others not necessarily the same thing) were highly valued. No part of movement disorder neurology was untouched by his presence as an explorer, quantifier, analyser, teacher and practitioner. An obituary by former students (Di Rocco and Werner, 2004) expresses the richness of his contribution to neurology and neurologists. He was an exemplar of successful ageing. Rejecting the curse of mandatory retirement, he continued his clinical and academic work into the last weeks of his life he was the compleat physician.

List of Authors

Working in wildlife research and conservation in Zimbabwe and southern Africa since the 1960s. After graduating at Rhodes University in South Africa, he started in fisheries research but soon joined Zimbabwe's Department of National Parks and Wildlife Management. After 12 years at the Sengwa Wildlife Research Institute (where he did his doctoral research) he headed the Branch of Terrestrial Ecology before taking early retirement as Deputy Director of National Parks. In 1988 he started the WWF Multispecies Animal Production Systems Project in Zimbabwe. This later grew into the WWF Southern African Regional Program, where he was Program Director until early 2001 when he became an independent consultant and a research associate in the Tropical Resource Ecology Programme at the University of Zimbabwe. His current research interests are in ecology and management of large mammalian herbivores, and resilience of social-ecological systems in southeastern Zimbabwe. Invertebrates...

Narcolepsy

The natural history of narcolepsy is chronic. Excessive daytime sleepiness is lifelong, although subjects cope with it more easily after retirement. Cataplexy may vanish with age in some subjects. Hypnagogic hallucinations and sleep paralysis are most often temporary. Poor sleep does not show a tendency to improve.

Acknowledgements

We apologize to our many colleagues whose work could only be cited indirecdy due to space limitations. We are grateful to Aura Kaunisto, Annika Meinander, Pia Roos-Mattjus and Anton Sandqvist for their valuable comments on the manuscript. The work done in our laboratory is financially supported by the Academy of Finland, the Finnish Cancer Organizations, the Sigrid Jusdlius Foundation, the Finnish Life and Pension Insurance Companies, and Abo Akademi University. J. Anckar is supported by the Turku Graduate School for Biomedical Sciences (TuBS).

Ian Skurnik

George and Nancy Mullen are ages 82 and 78, respectively, and have been married for 56 years. George is a retired autoworker and has good medical care benefits. After George retired at age 62, he and Nancy enjoyed a period of good health and relative financial ease. They owned two modest homes a lake cottage in northern Michigan and a bungalow in Florida. They traveled between the two homes, living in each for 6 months a year. Some of their aging brothers and sisters owned homes in the same two areas and they enjoyed a happy and social retirement.

Appealing A Denial

Federal legislation, called the Employee Retirement Income Security Act (ERISA), prevents states from legislating self-funded employer plans. It says that states can regulate insurers but cannot regulate employers. Therefore, these plans are not subject to state overview or external review. They are regulated by the U.S. Department of Labor. Although these plans must provide an internal appeals process, the only recourse following an internal appeal is the filing of a lawsuit.

Validation Report

The validation report should not be approved and issued until all control procedures and support programs are in place (i.e., system incident log, performance monitoring, calibration, preventative maintenance, document control, configuration control, security, training, contingency planning, internal audit, periodic review, requalification revalidation, decommissioning retirement). It is vital that the validation status of the computerized operation is not compromised.

Decommissioning

The ongoing evaluation process should also consider system decommissioning in readiness for eventual system retirement. Initially a plan should be prepared to identify GMP requirements and the validation considerations for system retirement. Then, in readiness for the actual decommissioning, a detailed procedure is required specific to the current operation of the computer system and its GMP-related quality-critical data. Any retesting required in support of decommissioning is to be included in this procedure.

Psychosocial factors

Factors such as prolonged social adversity, life events, early experiences, and social relationships have important effects on the onset and course of neurotic disorders at all ages. Social adversity may have its effect through higher rates of physical illness and exposure to adverse life events, or by inculcating a sense of poor self-esteem. However, the impact of adversity on self-esteem in old age is not clear, since a hard life may in fact equip one to cope better with the difficulties of old age. The role of adverse life events in determining the onset of depressive and anxiety disorders has been demonstrated in a number of studies (see Chapter., 4.5.5.1, Chapter,4.7.1, Ch.apter 4.7.2 and Chapter.4 7.3). It is the meaning of the event to the individual that is important loss events lead to depression and threatening events to anxiety. Some types of life event, such as physical illness, bereavement, retirement, and institutionalization, are more common in old age, and are...

Genetic Breakthrough

Ye formally presented his results on March 31, 1999, at a symposium honoring Potrykus on the occasion of Potrykus's mandatory retirement from the Swiss institute at age 65. Potrykus wrote in AgBioView that Ye's work was a scientific breakthrough because multiple genes, coding for a whole metabolic pathway, had never been engineered into a plant before.

Testing Underway

Since his retirement from ETHZ, Potrykus has spent most of his time explaining golden rice's advantages to the public and helping to oversee its testing and distribution. He has received several awards for his work, including the Kumho Science International Award in Plant Molecular Biology and Biotechnology (2000), the European Culture Award in Science, and the American Society of Plant Biologists' Leadership in Science Public Service Award (2001).

Description of IPT

IPT focuses on four main problem areas in its treatment approach to depression (1) grief (2) interpersonal disputes (conflict with significant others) (3) role transitions (changes in a significant life situation) (4) interpersonal deficits (problems with an individual's initiating, maintaining or sustaining relationships). A number of authors have argued that the approach IPT takes and its focus upon the four problem areas identified above make this form of psychotherapy particularly well suited for use with older adults (Hinrichsen, 1999 Karel & Hinrichsen, 2000 Miller et al., 1998 Miller & Silberman, 1996). As Hinrichsen (1999) states, late life is a time of change and adjustment many older people will be dealing with the loss of a spouse, many will be negotiating changes in the nature of their relationships with friends, spouses and adult children, and many will be dealing with role transitions due to retirement or adjustments to functional health status. Miller and Silberman...

Athletic Pubalgia

Algorithm For Testicular Pain

Data from eight athletic trainers in Major League Soccer and the National Hockey League estimate that 9 of players on a given team suffer or will suffer from a syndrome consistent with athletic pubalgia. Another 12 of players have some minor degree of chronic discomfort, which is not disabling. Up to 18 of players had some type of groin pull in the past but with subsequent recovery.32 In another uncontrolled survey of one professional team, 4 of players over a 5-year period retired because of groin pain. This problem was the leading cause of injury-related retirement for that team.94

Theoretical Models

Before we finish this section, some comments must also be made specifically about theoretical developments in the bipolar disorders. The study of bipolar disorders has suddenly opened up to psychological and social approaches, having long been ignored and left to the medicobiological approach. Even here, there have been few significant advances in theory, and the approach has focused primarily on pharmacotherapy (see Chapters 11 and 7). The promise of the psychological and the social approaches has been raised both by Wright and Lam (Chapter 12) and by Swartz et al. (Chapter 15). Although the primary focus of the last two chapters was on treatment (see also next section), the fact that the cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) and interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) models have an impact on the course of bipolar disorders is in itself of theoretical importance. Wright and Lam have highlighted both the role of specific types of dysfunctional beliefs that may be specific to bipolar...

Kaufmann

Melvin Yahr did not believe in retirement. When he stepped down as chairman at Mount Sinai in 1992, his office was demolished, literally. I guess the powers to be thought he would have stayed there otherwise. Undeterred, he got a new office, and a new endowed chair remaining as active as ever.