Was the Study Design Appropriate to Address the Hypothesis

The results of a tumor marker are most likely to be valid if they are studied in the context of a plausible hypothesis that is prospectively addressed; for example, a study of prognosis in the absence of the therapy being considered or prediction that the specific therapy will be beneficial. Many published studies report results related to hypotheses that are retrospectively derived from the observed data. Although such studies are valuable to generate hypotheses, these observations must be prospectively validated in subsequent, well-designed studies.4,25 Unfortunately, most tumor marker studies are performed using archived specimens collected for reasons unrelated to the study under question. Therefore, it is difficult to validate exciting but preliminary observations, which requires time-consuming prospective studies. Nonetheless, failure to do so often leaves the reader unable to draw definitive conclusions and, in the long run, delays acceptance of the marker for clinical use.

A Disquistion On The Evils Of Using Tobacco

A Disquistion On The Evils Of Using Tobacco

Among the evils which a vitiated appetite has fastened upon mankind, those that arise from the use of Tobacco hold a prominent place, and call loudly for reform. We pity the poor Chinese, who stupifies body and mind with opium, and the wretched Hindoo, who is under a similar slavery to his favorite plant, the Betel but we present the humiliating spectacle of an enlightened and christian nation, wasting annually more than twenty-five millions of dollars, and destroying the health and the lives of thousands, by a practice not at all less degrading than that of the Chinese or Hindoo.

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