Was the Study Design Appropriate to Address the Hypothesis

The results of a tumor marker are most likely to be valid if they are studied in the context of a plausible hypothesis that is prospectively addressed; for example, a study of prognosis in the absence of the therapy being considered or prediction that the specific therapy will be beneficial. Many published studies report results related to hypotheses that are retrospectively derived from the observed data. Although such studies are valuable to generate hypotheses, these observations must be prospectively validated in subsequent, well-designed studies.4,25 Unfortunately, most tumor marker studies are performed using archived specimens collected for reasons unrelated to the study under question. Therefore, it is difficult to validate exciting but preliminary observations, which requires time-consuming prospective studies. Nonetheless, failure to do so often leaves the reader unable to draw definitive conclusions and, in the long run, delays acceptance of the marker for clinical use.

10 Ways To Fight Off Cancer

10 Ways To Fight Off Cancer

Learning About 10 Ways Fight Off Cancer Can Have Amazing Benefits For Your Life The Best Tips On How To Keep This Killer At Bay Discovering that you or a loved one has cancer can be utterly terrifying. All the same, once you comprehend the causes of cancer and learn how to reverse those causes, you or your loved one may have more than a fighting chance of beating out cancer.

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