Subjective Versus Objective Cancer Diagnosis

The towering achievements in histologic diagnosis of cancer, as evidenced by treatises such as Ackerman's Surgical Pathology, are testimony to the remarkable ability of the human mind for pattern recognition. The issue is not knowledge or insight, but consistency and reproducibility, as noted previously. Further, it is self-evident that no form of morphologic diagnosis, nor its practitioners, can hope to identify genomic alterations that bear directly on diagnosis, prognosis, and potential therapy by histologic examination. The consequences of genomic alterations may in some way be evident, but that is not direct or objective evidence. For example, anaplasia is often considered a marker of higher-grade malignancy in cancer diagnosis and has been linked to mutations in p53, the most commonly mutated gene in human cancer.2-5 However, the correlation between anaplasia and p53 mutations detected by DNA sequencing or similar methods is poor4; rather, multiple genes may contribute to the pheno-type.6 Thus, morphology is not a surrogate of genomic analysis. The goal, then, of the diagnostic technologies discussed here is to provide objective evidence of class, character, genotype, phenotype, prognosis, and potential therapy, but not a diagnosis of cancer per se. That remains the domain of morphologic diagnosis. Nonetheless, the certainty of such diagnoses, and especially their value to the practice of oncology, can be markedly enhanced by these methods.

10 Ways To Fight Off Cancer

10 Ways To Fight Off Cancer

Learning About 10 Ways Fight Off Cancer Can Have Amazing Benefits For Your Life The Best Tips On How To Keep This Killer At Bay Discovering that you or a loved one has cancer can be utterly terrifying. All the same, once you comprehend the causes of cancer and learn how to reverse those causes, you or your loved one may have more than a fighting chance of beating out cancer.

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