Manish Agrawal Lindsay A Hampson and Ezekiel J Emanuel

Ever since the earliest days of cancer research, ethical issues have been integral. In 1891, a French physician, Victor Cornil, reported that to determine whether cancer was contagious, a small section of breast tumor removed from the breast of one woman was implanted in her contralateral noncancerous breast. The surgical resection and implant were conducted when the patient was anesthetized and without the patient's consent. When this research study was initially reported it was condemned "as criminal."1 In 1892, another cancer surgeon, William Coley, was conducting studies to determine whether "artificial erysipelas" (induced inflammation) would have antineoplastic effects. In describing one patient with a sarcoma, he noted that initially the patient was most reluctant to undergo the treatment. But "after some deliberation he consented, and on the 21st of April 1892 I began inoculations." Since that time, there has been substantial thought about the ethical issues involved in clinical oncology research, producing both more systematic analyses and important empirical data relevant to these issues. We delineate a general framework for analyzing the ethics of clinical research studies and then examine ethical issues involved in individual topics: (1) randomization and clinical equipoise; (2) informed consent; (3) Phase I oncology research; (4) stored biologic samples; (5) genetic testing; and (6) conflict of interest.

10 Ways To Fight Off Cancer

10 Ways To Fight Off Cancer

Learning About 10 Ways Fight Off Cancer Can Have Amazing Benefits For Your Life The Best Tips On How To Keep This Killer At Bay Discovering that you or a loved one has cancer can be utterly terrifying. All the same, once you comprehend the causes of cancer and learn how to reverse those causes, you or your loved one may have more than a fighting chance of beating out cancer.

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