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DNA and RNA-based vaccines

Genetic material delivered without the difficulties associated with the development of immune reactivity against viral vectors

Variable gene transfer efficiencies

B7-1; melanoma-associated antigens

AG, antigen; DC, dendritic cell; GM-CSF, granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor.

AG, antigen; DC, dendritic cell; GM-CSF, granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor.

figure 20.2. CTLA-4 binding leads to immunosuppression. T cells require two signals for activation. Signal 1 is the recognition of antigenic peptide in the context of MHC molecules; signal 2 can be provided by cell-surface molecules CD80 or CD86 (B7-1 and B7-2, respectively). CTLA-4 competitively binds B7 molecules and results in a damping of the T-cell response.

ogous tumor cells, and toxicity was minimal. The same group published a trial of autologous Hsp 96 therapy after resection of liver metastases from stage IV colorectal cancer patients.111 There was a correlation between immune response to autol-ogous tumor cells and overall as well as relapse-free survival, which was quite favorable compared to historical controls.

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