Info

s |O'Brien-Fleming|

s |O'Brien-Fleming|

|Haybittle-Petol

Pocock

Analysis Number figure 8.1. Different types of stopping boundaries for monitoring a Phase III trial. The upper and lower boundaries represent statistical test values on the vertical axis (on a standard normal scale), which, if exceeded at a given analysis indicated on the horizontal axis, would prompt stopping of the trial (the fourth analysis is the definitive analysis at the predetermined requisite number of events). The horizontal lines at ±1.96 represent the standard P greater than 0.05 boundary. Note that the Pocock boundary uses a fixed, modestly more extreme value, but the final test result must then also be more extreme than the conventional 0.05 test to be considered significant. The Haybittle-Peto method uses a conventional final test value but is very conservative through the penultimate hypothesis test. The O'Brien-Fleming boundaries begin very conservatively, but change as more information accrues, and also allow that the final test be performed using the conventional significance level.

TABLE 8.5. Prototypical Phase III trial data and safety monitoring

committee.

A Disquistion On The Evils Of Using Tobacco

A Disquistion On The Evils Of Using Tobacco

Among the evils which a vitiated appetite has fastened upon mankind, those that arise from the use of Tobacco hold a prominent place, and call loudly for reform. We pity the poor Chinese, who stupifies body and mind with opium, and the wretched Hindoo, who is under a similar slavery to his favorite plant, the Betel but we present the humiliating spectacle of an enlightened and christian nation, wasting annually more than twenty-five millions of dollars, and destroying the health and the lives of thousands, by a practice not at all less degrading than that of the Chinese or Hindoo.

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