Fine Needle Aspiration

Fine-needle aspirations obtain cell suspensions suitable for cytology or flow cytometry. This technique can be helpful in aspirating a thyroid nodule, sometimes a breast lump, or a lymph node whenever lymphoma is not primary in the differential diagnosis. The advantages to fine-needle aspiration include the lack of a scar, lack of need for anesthetic, good patient tolerance of the procedure, and the relatively fast turnover of cytology in obtaining a diagnosis. Cell-surface receptors cannot be evaluated, and cytology cannot distinguish between invasive and noninvasive cancers. A fine-needle aspiration should be done only when the determination of atypical or malignant cells will help in diagnosis or treatment, such as proceeding with a thyroid lobectomy or documenting whether a lesion is recurrent cancer in a patient with a known history of the disease. Although a determination of cell abnormality and malignancy can be done, it is usually not sufficient for determining the definitive diagnosis of a primary neoplasm, with the possible exception of abnormal cytology on brushings from an endoscopic examination in a patient with a pancreatic head mass or bile duct stricture. Because of the possibility of false-positive results, cytology is not considered sufficient for proceeding with a major surgical resection such as a mastectomy. In such instances, a method of biopsy that yields definitive histology should be obtained.

How To Reduce Acne Scarring

How To Reduce Acne Scarring

Acne is a name that is famous in its own right, but for all of the wrong reasons. Most teenagers know, and dread, the very word, as it so prevalently wrecks havoc on their faces throughout their adolescent years.

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