Extravasation

Having arrested at their target organ, metastasizing cells must extravasate from the circulation by traversing the endothe-lium and underlying basement membrane to achieve successful secondary metastatic growth. This success derives to a significant degree from the same locomotive and tissue penetrative capacities that were required to complete intravasation.

Novel insights into the molecular and mechanical aspects of extravasation have been garnered by the development and implementation of innovative experimental and investigative techniques such as in vivo video microscopy181-183 and laser scanning confocal microscopy.184 The ability of metastasizing cells to translocate beyond the endothelium significantly relies upon the inherent locomotive potential of the metas-tasizing cell and has been correlated with the expression of, among other molecules, transforming growth factor-beta185 and activation of promotogenic pathways involving, for example, protein kinase 2/p38186 and c-erbB-2.187 To complete its transendothelial migration, the extravasating cell may also require a permeable endothelial cell layer188,189 as well as activation of transendothelial migratory mechanisms.190-192

Beyond the endothelial layer, the metastasizing cell must penetrate the underlying basement membrane. Mechanistically, this process has been compared with the process of inflammation-associated leukocyte infiltration193-198 requiring, reminiscent of intravasation, metalloproteinase expression to degrade the basement membrane.199-201 Once the extravasation process is complete, the metastasizing cell faces its final obstacle of secondary proliferation at the metastatic site.

A Disquistion On The Evils Of Using Tobacco

A Disquistion On The Evils Of Using Tobacco

Among the evils which a vitiated appetite has fastened upon mankind, those that arise from the use of Tobacco hold a prominent place, and call loudly for reform. We pity the poor Chinese, who stupifies body and mind with opium, and the wretched Hindoo, who is under a similar slavery to his favorite plant, the Betel but we present the humiliating spectacle of an enlightened and christian nation, wasting annually more than twenty-five millions of dollars, and destroying the health and the lives of thousands, by a practice not at all less degrading than that of the Chinese or Hindoo.

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment