Radiation Safety Considerations For Personnel

So far, few data exist on radiation exposure to personnel. As all the commonly used radionuclides are ยก3 emitters and only Re-186 and Dy-165 have an additional g component, significant radiation exposure is only achieved during handling and application of the radiopharmaceuticals. Performing the radionuclide application under fluoroscopy results in an additional radiation exposure to the personnel. For a standard application of 10 GBq Dy-165, the finger doses for the applying physician and the technologist were 0.7 mSv and 0.3 mSv, respectively, while whole-body doses were reported to be 0.1 mSv for the technologist and 0.04 mSv for the physician (75). Liepe et al. (76) found that the highest radiation dose during radionuclide injection is received by the left index finger in right handers. The maximum received doses were 22.1, 1.8, and 0.8 mSv/MBq for Y-90, Re-186, and Er-169, respectively. This translates into finger doses of 4 mSv per knee joint treated with 200 MBq of Y-90, about 0.1-0.2 mSv per mid-size joint treated with 70-185 MBq of Re-186, and 0.03 mSv per finger or toe joint treated with 15-40 MBq of Er-169, respectively. To minimize the high finger doses especially in cases of Y-90 and P-32, holding forceps and special shields are highly recommended which have been shown to decrease the radiation exposure by a factor of up to 50.

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