Radiation Protection Aspects Handling Sources

As the prodution of bremsstrahlung is linearly dependent on the atomic number Z, low Z materials, like glass, plastic, and lucite, are the preferred shielding materials for P-32 electrons. The beta particles travel a maximum of 3.1 mm in glass and 6.7 mm in lucite. Although no gamma radiation is produced in the decay process, larger amounts (over 100 MBq) of P-32 will produce sufficient photon radiation (bremsstrahlung) to warrant extra safety measures in the form of 2- to 3-mm lead shielding around a primary shield of glass or plastic. As the distances traveled in air by the emitted beta particles are large, sources containing P-32 should always be shielded appropriately. Direct contact with vials, and the like, should be avoided. The skin and the lens of the eye of the operator are at greatest risk (Table 2).

Estimates of dose rates after skin contaminations with P-32 vary from 1.8 to 2.0Gy/h per MBq/cm2 (11). As the threshold erythema dose is estimated to be 10 Gy for P-32 (12), even small spills of the commercially provided injection solution or extravasations could presumably lead to local skin effects.

How To Deal With Rosacea and Eczema

How To Deal With Rosacea and Eczema

Rosacea and Eczema are two skin conditions that are fairly commonly found throughout the world. Each of them is characterized by different features, and can be both discomfiting as well as result in undesirable appearance features. In a nutshell, theyre problems that many would want to deal with.

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