Thyroid cancer is one of the most common endocrine malignancies. It has an increasing population incidence (1,2). The annual incidence per 100 individuals ranges from 1.2 to 2.6 in men and from 2.0 to 3.8 in women. Most of the tumors have a relatively indolent clinical course. However, subgroups of patients may have an aggressive clinical course or a high risk of developing recurrence (3). The optimum treatment for thyroid carcinoma is still debated and a number of controversies exist with respect to the extent of surgery, use of radioactive iodine, and postoperative thyroxine suppression.

The correct assessment of prognostic factors helps to determine patients at high risk for developing recurrences and facilitates the development of a selective approach to therapy. Most important is the appropriate selection of the type and extent of treatment (4).

This chapter evaluates the current concepts for management of differentiated thyroid carcinoma.

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